•  Helpful Vocabulary Terms to Review

    Hypothesis

    theory

    law

    Inference

    Independent Variable

    Dependent Variable

    Control

    Scientific Methods

    Hypothesis

    Analyze

    Observe/observation

    Record

    Data 

    Communication

    Measurement

    Lab Safety

    Chemical change

    Physical change

    atom

    element

    matter

    noble gas

    chemical symbol

    electron

    neutron

    proton

    ion

    compound

    chemical formula

    chemical property

    physical property

    chemcial change

    physical change

    conductivity 

    density

    molecule

    periodic table

    metal

    semimetal

    chemical reaction

    balance chemical equation

    mixture

    solute

    solution

    solvent

    colloid

    gas

    liquid

    solid

    plasma

    state of matter

    condesation

    depostion 

    melting

    sublimation

    boiling point

    thermal expansion

    evaporation

    vaporization

    acceleration

    momentum

    force

    friction 

    drag

    lift

    terminal velocity

    gravity 

    weight

    intertia

    motion

    thrust 

    newton

    joule

    watt

    speed

    velcoity

    work

    power

    machine

    work input

    work output

    mechanical advantage

    mechanical efficiency

    mechanical energy

    simple machine (the 6 types)

    lever, force, fulcrum, load (3types)

    pulley

    wheel and axel

    screw

    wedge 

    inclined plane

    electromagnets

    chemical energy

    energy

    kinetic energy

    potential energy

    gravitational potential energy

    magnitude, crest, trough, amplitude, wavelength, frequency, velocity, transverse wave vs. longitudinal (compressional) wave

    mechanical wave

    pitch

    vibration

    volume

    lens

    reflection

    refraction

    electromagnetic spectrum

    prism

    opaque

    transparent

    translucent

    concave lens

    concave mirror

    convex lens

    convex lens

    solar energy

    visible light

    heat

    temperature

    thermal energy

    conduction

    conductor

    convection

    insulator

    radiation

    electrical energy

    electric current

    electric generator

    static electricity

    parallel circuit

    series circuit

    switch

    voltage

    hydraulics

    pressure

    density

    mass

    volume

    magnetic pole

    attraction

    repulsion

    Newton’s 1st Law of Motion: An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

     

     

    Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion: Acceleration depends on the object’s mass and on the net force acting on the object. F= M x A (Force = Mass x Acceleration)

     

     

    Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

     

     

    Inertia: The resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion. Also known as Newton’s 1st law of motion.

     

     

    Motion: A change in position

     

     

    Reference Point: Is a place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion.

     

     

    Acceleration: The rate at which velocity changes.

     

     

    Speed: The distance an object travels per unit of time.

     

     

    Constant Speed: Speed does not increase or decrease but remains fixed over time.

     

     

    Velocity: Speed in a given direction.

     

     

    Direction: The line or course on which something is moving or is aimed to move or along which something is pointing or facing.

     

     

    Position: The point or area occupied by a physical object.

     

     

    Distance: The degree or amount of separation between two points.

     

     

    Slope: The steepness of a line or object. The formula for calculating slope is: Slope= Rise/ Run

     

     

    Friction: A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching.

     

     

     

    Force: a push or pull acting on an object. Forces act in pairs.

     

     

    Balanced Force: When the net force on an object is zero. There will be no change in the motion of the object. The object is either at rest or maintaining at a constant speed.

     

     

    Unbalanced Force: When the net force on an object is greater than zero. There will be a change in the motion of the object. An object at rest will begin to move, while an object already moving will change its speed and or direction.

     

     

    Magnetic Force: Force of attraction or repulsion exerted by a magnet.

     

     

    Gravity: Usually defined as the force of attraction between two masses.

     

     

    Equilibrium: A state of rest or balance due to opposite forces acting equally.

     

     

     

    Energy: Anything that has the ability to make matter move or change. The ability to do work.

     

     

    Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy changes from one form to another. The total energy of an object never changes.

     

     

    Energy Transformation: The process of changing energy from one form to another

     

     

    Potential Energy: Energy that is stored in a system. It is energy that can be released to become kinetic or another form of energy.

     

     

    Kinetic Energy: The energy an object has because of its motion. Kinetic energy depends upon the mass and velocity of an object.

     

     

    Mechanical Energy: The energy an object has because of its motion or position (i.e. The total amount of kinetic and potential energy in a system)

     

     

    Electrical Energy: Energy caused by the movement of charged particles (Electrons). Easily transported through power lines and can be converted to other forms of energy.

     

     

    Chemical Energy: Energy that is available for release from chemical reactions.

     

     

    Nuclear Energy: Energy that is stored in the nucleus of an atom.

     

     

    Green Energy: Energy that comes from sources that do not pollute the earth.

     

     

    Thermal Energy: The energy a substance has related to its temperature. The faster molecules move the more thermal energy they create. In every energy transfer – some energy is changed to thermal or heat energy.

     

     

    Radiant Energy: The form of energy related to the movement of light, electromagnetic waves, or particles.

     

     

    Sound Energy: Energy created by the vibration of a material

     

     

     

    Work: the use of force to move an object. The amount of work done depends on the amount of force exerted and the distance the object traveled.

     

     

    Force: A push or a pull

     

     

    Simple Machine: A device that helps make work easier to perform

     

     

    Inclined Plane: a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle, with one end higher than the other

     

     

    Pulley: a wheel with a grooved rim around which a cord passes. It acts to change the direction of a force applied to the cord and is mainly used to raise heavy weights

     

     

    Lever: A rigid bar resting on a pivot, used to help move a heavy or firmly fixed load with one end when pressure is applied to the other

     

     

    Wheel and Axle: a simple machine consisting of a rope that unwinds from a wheel onto a cylindrical drum or shaft joined to the wheel to provide mechanical advantage.

     

     

    Screw: modified version of the inclined plane. Threads of the screw are like a type of circular ramp (or inclined plane).

     

     

    Wedge: a triangular shaped tool, and is a portable inclined plane

     

     

    Mechanical Advantage: how many times more force you get out of a simple machine

     

     

    2nd Semester 

    Biology

     

    diploid - cells that have pairs of chromosomes

    haploid - cells that have only one chormosome fron each pair

    homologulous chromosome - pairs of chromosomes that have genes for the same traits arranged in the same order

    sexual reproduction - a type of reproduction in which the genetic materials from two different cells combine, producing an offspring

    meiosis - the process in which one diploid cell divides and makes four haploid cells, division of sex cells

    zygote - the new cell that forms from fertilization

    fertilization - the process in which an egg cell and sperm cell join together

    egg - the female sex cell, which forms in an ovary

    sperm - the male sex cell, which forms in a testis

    DNA - the gentic information in a cell

     

     

     

     

    TAXONOMY - Classification System for plants and animals created by Carolous Linnaeus

     

    Kingdom

     

         Phylum

     

             Class

     

                   Order

     

                       Family

     

                             Genus

     

                                 Species

     

    Names are in Greek or Latin using a two-part scientific name to assign every organism.

     

    An organism is named based on its genus and species.

     

    The species name is usually an adjective.

     

    The genus name is usually a noun.

     

    The first letter of the Genus name is ALWAYS capitalized.

     

    When the scientific name is typed it is always Italicizied.

     

    When written by hand, it is underlined.

     

     

     

    Cells - (Protist Cells, Animal Cells, and Plant Cells)

     

    Unicellular- organisms are single-celled.

     

    Eukaryotes- are cellular organisms that contain nuclei.

     

    Flagellum- (flagella) are "tail-like " structure attached to the outer membrane of some cells specialized for locomotion or movement.

     

    Heterotrophs- are organisms that cannot make their own food.

     

    Multicellular- organisms are composed of many cells.

     

    Prokaryotes are cellular organisms that lack a nucleus.

     

    Cilium (cilia) are "hair-like" structures that outer membrane of some cells specialized for locomotion or movement.

     

    Autotrophs are organisms that make their own food.

     

    Cytoplasm is a gel-like substance residing between the cell membrane holding all the cell's organelles, except for the nucleus.

     

    Pseudopods "false feet" a unicellular organism uses a foot like extension - it is used for motion

     

    Amoebae a unicellular life form characterized by an irregular shape and moves using pseudopods.

     

    Euglena is a protist that is both animal-like, and plant-like. They contain chlorophyll and can make their own food like an autotroph, and they can also ingest food from their surroundings like a heterotroph.

     

    Paramecium a group of unicellular protozoa which mainly move by the use of cilia

     

    Protists a kingdom of living organisms that are eukaryotic and can not be classified as animals, plants, or fungus.

     

    Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular, eukaryotic organisms, many of which are motile.

     

    Volvox is a type of green algae that form spherical colonies of up to 50,000 cells that live in a variety of freshwater habitats.

     

    Algae: Eukaryotic plant-like protists that can be unicellular or multicellular, contain chlorophyll, and provide over half of the world's oxygen supply

     

    Sporozoa: a fungus-like protist that reproduces by the use of spores.

     

    Diatoms: unicellular plant-like autotrophs. They are a group of algae that come in a variety of shapes and contain silica in their cell walls.

     

    Organelles - A specialized part of the cell, it means little organ.

     

    Cell Basic unit of structure and function in living things. It is the basic building block of life

     

    Cell Membrane

    *Found in plant and animal cells

    *A double lipid layer that has proteins embedded in it

    *Functions: protection, support, movement of substances in and out of the cell (osmosis, diffusion, active transport)

     

    Golgi Body

    It is named after Camillo Golgi, who discovered its presence in cells in 1898. It has a structure that looks like a flattened collection of sacs and tubes like a stack of pancakes. These structures can be thought of as the cell's mailroom. They receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell or outside of the cell.

     

    Lysosome

    *Usually only found in animal cells

    *Small round structures involved in the digestive activities of the cell.

    *Contain enzymes that break down food molecules into usable substances which are passed on to the mitochondria.

    *They also digest old cell parts, recycling the components so they can be used again - the clean up crew

     

    Mitochondria

    *Found in plant and animal cells

    *This is the "power house" of the cell - where energy is produced

    *The site of cellular respiration - food and oxygen are combined in the mitochondria of a cell to produce energy which is stored as ATP. Energy is released when an ATP molecule is broken apart.

    *More active cells have more mitochondria

     

    Nucleus

    * Found in plant and animal cells

    *The control center of the cell - directs all cell activities

    *Contains chromosomes which are made of chromatin which is composed of DNA (nucleic acids) - these structures are the "blueprints" of life (instructions for all of the organisms' characteristics)

    *Contains the Nucleolus - a small round structure that makes ribosomes

    *Surrounded by the nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope) - this is very similar in structure to the cell membrane.

     

    Ribosome (Free or Bound)

    * Found in plant and animal cells

    *Small round structures found on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and floating around in the cytoplasm.

    *These are the protein factories of the cell - This is where amino acids are combined to make the proteins our bodies need to survive

     

    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    * Found in plant and animal cells

    * A maze of tubular passageways throughout the cell

    * The transportation system for the cell - helps to move substances through the cytoplasm (thick jelly-like substance that the organelles float in) of the cell.

    *There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum - rough and smooth,

    *The rough Endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached to its surface.

     

    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

    *Found in plant and animal cells

    * A maze of tubular passageways throughout the cell

    *The transportation system for the cell - helps to move substances through the cytoplasm (thick jelly-like substance that the organelles float in) of the cell.

    *There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum - rough and smooth,

    *The smooth one does not have ribosomes attached to its surface.

     

    Vacuoles: Found in plant and animal cells - BUT there is only one large vacuole in plant cells, and animal cells have a few little ones. These are the storage tanks for the cell - they store water, food, waste, enzymes, etc.

     

    Nuclear Envelope - Double lipid bilayer, which is a physical barrier, separating the contents of the nucleus. Nuclear pores are in the nuclear envelope, which regulate the exchange of materials.

     

    Nucleolus - This is the site where ribosomes are produced. Ribosomes are involved in the protein-making process in the cell.

     

     

    Cell Wall

    *It gives protection and support.

    *It is found in plant cells

    * It is not found in animal cells

     

    Chloroplast

    * Found in plant cells only

    *These are green structures that are the site of photosynthesis (the process plants use to produce food).

    *They contain chlorophyll which is a green pigment (makes plants green).

     

    Chromatin: Chromatin is the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell.

     

    Chromosome: They are found in the nucleus. They direct the production of proteins in the cell and are responsible for cell growth and reproduction.

     

    Diffusion

    * A process by which substances (other than water) move from a higher concentration of that substance

    *No energy needed

    *Example: a bottle of perfume is opened in a room

     

    Active Transport

    Use energy to "carry" substances into a cell

    One method of active transport is to pick up the substance outside the cell and pull it through the cell membrane.

     

    Osmosis

    *Diffusion of water through a membrane

    *No energy needed

    *The movement of water from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

    *Example: celery stay crisper when stored in water in the refrigerator

     

    Hierarchy - The arrangement of a particular set of items that are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another.

     

    Organelles: A structure within a cell that carries out the various processes necessary for a cell to function properly.

     

    Specialized Cell: is a type of cell that performs a specific function in multicellular organisms. Groups of specialized cells work together to form a tissue

     

    Tissue: a group of cells from the same origin that together carry out a specific function.

     

    Organs - A collection of tissues joined into a structural unit that serves a common function.

     

    Organ System: Two or more organs working together in the execution of a specific body function.

     

    Organism - A life form such as animal, fungus, micro-organism, or plant that in some form is capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth, development and maintenance of homeostasis.

     

    Genetics: The scientific study of heredity.

     

    Heredity: The passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring.

     

    Traits: the different forms of a characteristic

     

    Alleles - The different forms of a gene.

     

    Asexual reproduction - A form of reproduction in which a new organism is created from a single parent and inherits the genes of that parent only.

     

    Binary Fission -Binary fission is the subdivision of a cell into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into two separate cells.

     

    Budding- A form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism grows on another one. The new organism remains attached as it grows, separating from the parent organism only when it is mature. The newly created organism is a clone and is genetically identical to the parent organism.

     

    Dominant Allele -An allele, form of a gene, whose trait always shows up in an organism when the allele is present and working correctly.

     

    Egg Cell -The "female" sex cell; contains 1⁄2 the genetic information of the female parent.

     

    Fertilization -The process in which the sex cells of different organisms of the same species combine to produce a new organism.

     

    Gamete -A cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually; also known as the sex cells.

     

    Gene -A gene is the set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific protein.

     

    Recessive Allele -An allele, form of a gene, whose trait is masked when a dominant allele is present and working correctly.

     

    Sexual reproduction -A form of reproduction in which a new organism is created by combining the genetic material of two organisms of the same or similar genetic species.

     

    Sperm Cell -The "male" sex cell; contains 1⁄2 the genetic information of the male parent.

     

    Adenine -Nitrogen base that pairs with Thymine in DNA and Uracil when found in RNA.

     

    Amino Acid -A small molecule that is linked chemically in ribosomes to other amino acids to form proteins.

     

    Cell Cycle -The series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication.

     

    Chromosome -A double rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information.

     

    Cytokinesis -The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the 2 new cells and a new cellular membrane forms around each new cell.

     

    Cytosine -Nitrogen base that only pairs with Guanine when found in DNA and RNA.

     

    DNA -Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism creates proteins and is passed from parent to offspring.

     

    Guanine -Nitrogen base that only pairs with Cytosine when found in DNA and RNA.

     

    Interphase -The 1st stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs.

     

    Mitosis -The stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into 2 new nuclei and 1 copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.

     

    mRNA -RNA molecule that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

     

    Nitrogen base pair -A nitrogen-containing molecule that are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

     

    Replication -The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.

     

    Thymine -Nitrogen base that only pairs with Adenine when found in DNA.

     

    tRNA -RNA molecule found in the cytoplasm of a cell that carries amino acids to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain.

     

    Genome is a cell’s total hereditary endowment or the entire genetic code (DNA) found within the nucleus of a cell.

     

    – It takes place inside the somatic cells of humans with the exception of red blood cells & certain nerve cells.

     

    Somatic cells are all the body’s cells except the reproductive cells; egg & sperm. Somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes.

     

    Chromosomes are condensed chromatin into double rods (chromatids) of genetic material.

     

    Chromatin The mass of very long, thin fibers of DNA & proteins that are found unwound within the nucleus.