• Grade 10 Biology: Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Semester 1

    Subject: Science
    Grade: 10 
    Timeline: 18 weeks
    Title: GRCell Biology and Biochemistry

    Cell Biology and Biochemistry Overview: 
    In this semester, students are challenged to answer the question "How do organisms live and grow?".  Students demonstrate that they can use investigations and and gather evidence to support explanations of cell function and reproduction.  They understand the role of proteins as essential to the work of the cell and living systems.  Students can use models to explain photosynthesis, respiration, and the cycling of matter and flow of energy in living organisms.  The cellular processes can be used as a model for understanding of the hierarchical organization of organism.  Concepts of matter and energy, structure and function, and systems and system models provide students with insights into the structures and processes of organisms.

    Unit Objectives:
    The objectives of this unit are to apply the Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) Crosscutting Concepts that bridge disciplinary boundaries, uniting core ideas throughout the fields of science and engineering.
    3. Systems and System Models  Systems may interact with other systems; they may have sub-systems and be a part of larger complex systems.
    4. Energy and Matter  Matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes.  Within a natural system, the transfer of energy drives the motion and/or cycling of matter.  The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a natural system.
    5. Structure and Function  Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function.
    7. Stability and Change  Small changes in one part of a system might cause large changes in another part.
    Focus Standards
    PA Biology Keystone Eligible Content


    Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. 


    Compare cellular structures and their functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at various levels of biological organization (i.e., organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and multi-cellular organisms).


    Describe the unique properties of water and how these properties support life on Earth (e.g., freezing point, high specifi cheat, cohesion).


    Explain how carbon is uniquely suited to form biological macromolecules.


    Describe how biological macromolecules form from monomers.


    Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in organisms.


    Describe the role of an enzyme as a catalyst in regulating a specific biochemical reaction.
    Explain how factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration levels can affect enzyme function.


    Describe the fundamental roles of plastids (e.g., chloroplasts) and mitochondria in energy transformations.


    Compare the basic transformation of energy during photosynthesis and cellular respiration.


    Describe the role of ATP in biochemical reactions.


    Compare the basic transformation of energy during photosynthesis and cellular respiration.


    Describe how the structure of the plasma membrane allows it to function as a regulatory structure and/or protective barrier for a cell.


    Describe how the structure of the plasma membrane allows it to function as  a regulatory structure and/or protective barrier for a cell.


    Compare the mechanisms that transport materials across the plasma membrane (i.e., passive transport—diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion; and active transport—pumps, endocytosis, exocytosis).


    Describe how membrane-bound cellular organelles (e.g., endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus) facilitate the transport of materials within a cell.


    Explain how organisms maintain homeostasis (e.g., thermoregulation, water regulation, oxygen regulation).


    Describe the events that occur during the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division (i.e., mitosis or meiosis), cytokinesis.


    Next Generation Science Standards - High School - Disciplinary Core Ideas

    LS1.A: Structure and Function

    • Systems of specialized cells within organisms  help them perform the essential functions of life.  (HS-LS-1)
    •  All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules.  Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry our most of the work of cells.  (HS-LS-1) (Note:  This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS3-1.)
    • Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)
    • Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system's internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range.  Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) wwhat is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)

    LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

    • In multicellular organisms individual cells grow and then divide via a process called mitosis, thereby allowing the organism to grow.  The organism begins as a single cell (fertilized egg) that  divides successively to produce many cells, with each parent cell passing identical genetic materials (two variants of each chromosome pair) to both daughter cells.  Cellular division and differentiation produce and maintain a complex organism, composed of systems of tissues and organs that work together to meet the needs of the whole organism. (HS-LS1-4)
    LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
    • The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by converting carbon dioxide plus water into sugars plus released oxygen. (HS-LS1-5)

    • The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells. (HS-LS1-6)As matter and energy flow through different organizational levels of living systems, chemical elements are recombined in different ways to form different products. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7)As a result of these chemical reactions, energy is transferred from one system of interacting molecules to another. Cellular respiration is a chemical process in which the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and new compounds are formed that can transport energy to muscles. Cellular respiration also releases the energy needed to maintain body temperature despite ongoing energy transfer to the surrounding environment. (HS-LS1-7)

    Concepts - Students will know:
    • how to design an experiment using scientific method.
    • the characteristics of living things.
    • the levels of organization.
    • the atomic structure and function of an atom and its parts.
    • the definition and representation of elements and isotopes.
    • the meaning of radioactive isotopes and how they are used.
    • the definition of a compound, how to represent chemicals and their properties.
    • the types of chemical bonds (ionic, covalent, hydrogen) and Van der Waals forces.
    • the chemical make up of a water molecule and its properties.
    • mixtures and the difference between a solution and a suspension.
    • the pH scale and what pH measures and differentiate between an acid and a base.
    • the chemical properties of carbon.
    • the four groups of organic compounds found in living things and the structure and function of each.
    • what happens to chemical bonds during chemical reactions.
    • the effect of energy on chemical reactions.
    • the effect of enzymes on chemical reactions and the role of the enzyme substrate complex.
    • how factors affect enzyme function.
    • how to properly use a compound light microscope.
    • how to differentiate the structure and function of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
    • the functions of the major structures of eukaryotic cells.
    • the differences between animal and plant cells.
    • how materials are transported in and out of the cell.
    • the increasing levels of complexity from unicellular to multicellular organisms.
    • how organisms use energy and the role of ATP.
    • how light energy  is transformed into chemical energy during the process of photosynthesis.
    • how chemical energy is converted into ATP.
    • the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
    • the processes of alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation.
    • the history of DNA.
    • the structure of DNA and the process of replication.
    • the structure of RNA and the process of protein synthesis.
    • the cell cycle in somatic cell production.
    • the cell cycle in gamete formation.
    • the relationship between mitosis and meiosis.

    Competencies -Students will be able to:

    • identify and utilize laboratory equipment                                                 
    • follow laboratory safety procedures and recognize safety symbols.                                              
    • use and convert metric units using dimensional analysis                                             
    • design a controlled experiment utilizing the collection and analysis of data
    • explain the major themes of living things
    • identify the levels of biological organization
    • label and define the function of the parts of an atom.
    • identify elements and use chemical symbols.                          
    • identify isotopes.
    • discuss the practical uses of radioactive isotopes in the real world.
    • define compound.                         
    • use chemical formulas.                                                  
    • recognize and understand the importance of chemical compounds in biology.  
    • define the types of chemical bonds.                                                 
    • understand how compounds exhibit specific types of bonds.  
    • recognize the chemical formula of water.                           
    • describe the unique properties of water and their impact on life.
    • define a mixture and differentiate among the various types.
    • use the pH scale to distinguish between an acid and a base. 
    • understand the unique bonding properties of carbon.
    • recognize the chemical formulas and the identifying functional groups.                      
    • discuss how structure relates to function.                    
    • describe how macromolecules are formed and list examples.   
    • identify parts of a chemical reaction.                                       
    • define and distinguish between hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis.
    • analyze the role of energy in chemical reactions.                    
    • interpret graphs of endothermic and exothermic reactions
    • recognize enzymes as catalysts and their role in regulating biochemical reactions.                                    
    • explain the enzyme substrate complex.
    • explain how pH, temperature, and concentration affect enzyme activity.
    • identify the  parts and describe the functions.
    • compare and contrast the characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.                              
    • discuss cell size and growth                        
    • explain how eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes.
    • explain how cells contain specialized structures to perform functions necessary for life.
    • compare and contrast animal and plant cells.
    • identify the parts of the cell membrane                                                  
    • explain how the structure of the cell membrane determines what materials travel in and out of the cell.                                                                     
    • describe the types of active and passive transport.     
    • identify and explain the basic processes for organisms to maintain homeostasis at each level.
    • compare how heterotrophs and autotrophs utilize energy for their life processes.
    • construct the formula for photosynthesis.                               
    • analyze the energy transfer in the process of photosynthesis. 
    • construct the formula for  cellular respiration.                                                          
    • analyze the energy transfer in the process of cellular respiration.
    • describe the complimentary relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
    • identify the types of cells that carry on fermentation.                                                  
    • discuss the limiting factors that lead to fermentation.
    • identify the scientists who collaborated in the discovery of DNA.
    • explain how nucleotides combine to form the DNA molecule.                                         
    • demonstrate complimentary base pairing.                                                                  
    • list the events that occur during DNA replication.
    • explain how nucleotides combine  to form the RNA molecule.                                         
    • describe the types of RNA and their functions.                               
    • discuss the events involved in transcription and translation.
    • identify and describe interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis.
    • compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. 

    • Laboratory equipment identification lab.                                                 
    • Lab safety lesson and contract.                                                                                          
    • Measurement and manipulations lab.                                      
    • Experimental design scenarios, construct and analyze data tables and graphs, draw conclusions, make real life applications.                           
    • Write lab reports.
    • Card sort, posters on characteristics of living things.
    • Worksheets, flip book on levels of organization.
    • Model or draw and label atoms.
    • Class activity on Periodic Table.                                                                       
    • Various isotope activities.
    • Case studies on practical uses of radioactive isotopes.
    • Write chemical formulas.                         
    • Identify common compounds.
    • Model or draw types of bonding.
    • Lab on properties of water, real life applications.
    • Demonstrations regarding mixtures.
    • Lessons and labs on pH testing, real life examples.
    • *Lesson on carbon bonding.
    • Card sort, worksheets.    
    • Visual representation.                                                   
    • Modeling activity and identifying organic compounds lab.
    • Visual representation.                                
    • Visual representation and modeling activities.
    • Demonstration and lab on the effect of energy on chemcial reactions.
    • Labs on the effects of enzymes on chemical reactions.                                                                            
    • Introductory microscope lab, graphic organizers, scientific drawings.
    • Model, draw and label cell membrane.                              
    • Diffusion, osmosis, and plasmolysis labs, demonstrations, real life applications.     
    • Homeostasis lab.
    • Energy lab.
    • Modeling using molecular kits, visual representations for the production of ATP.                      
    • Chromatography lab.              
    • Photosynthesis lab.
    • Modeling using molecular kits.
    • Cellular respiration lab.
    • Fermentation lab.                       
    • Physiology lab.
    • Timeline activity on the history of DNA.
    • DNA lab.
    • Protein synthesis modeling activities.
    • Microscope lab on cell division.                           

    Elements of Instruction:
    Next Generation Science Standards - High School Life Science - Science and Engineering Practices
    Developing and Using Models-Modeling in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s). 
    Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions-  Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9-12 and builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.
    Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information- Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.
    Planning and Carrying Out Investigations- Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.
    Analyzing and Interpreting Data- Analyzing data in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

    Connections to Nature of Science

     Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

    • Scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include: logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest and ethical reporting of findings. (HS-LS1-3)

    [Each lesson has differentiation options for each portion of the lesson. Additional differentiation options are listed with directions and student masters in the Teacher’s Guide.]
    Remediation could include: using word walls, using flip charts or foldables, structured notebooks, peer teaching, teaming with the math department for graphing.
    Extensions could include: independent research, inquiry based experiments, exploration of topics online.

    Interdisciplinary Connections:
        Writing in the Sciences is connected to Literacy Common Core Shifts.  Students could use notebooking or journaling, reading informational text and answering text-dependent questions, writing laboratory experiment plans and lab reports, academic and content specific vocabulary. 
        Problem Solving in the Sciences is connected with Mathematics Common Core Shifts.  Measurement, graphing data, and calculations.

    Additional Resources / Games:
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 3, pg 83 "Is It a Theory?" ; pg 101 "What is a Hypothesis?"; pg 93 "Doing Science"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 1, pg 123 "Is it Living?" ; pg 117 "Is it an Animal?"; pg 147 "Functions of Living Things"; Volume 2, pg 93 "Is it a Plant?"; pg 107 "Plants in the Dark and Light." Volume 3, pg 111 "Does it Have a Life Cycle?"            
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 1, pg 139 "Human Body Basics"     
    Discovery Education - "Elements of Chemistry: Atoms the Building Blocks of Matter"                                                     http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/periodic-table.html
    Discovery Education - "Radioactivity:  Uses in Industry and Science"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 1, pg 85 "Is it Made of Molecules?"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 1, pg 91 "The Rusty Nails"; Volume 2, pg 71 "Chemical Bonds"; Volume 4, pg 39 "Salt Crystals"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 1, pg 155 "Wet Jeans"; Volume 2, pg 59 "Freezing Ice"; pg 53 "Boiling Time and Temperature"; Volume 3, pg 33 "Thermometer"; pg 163 "Where did the Water Come From?"; Volume 4, pg 45 "Ice Water"; pg 53 "Warming Water" 
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 1, pg 55 "Lemonade", Volume 4, pg 11 "Sugar Water"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 4, pg 91 "Is it Food?"
    Discovery Education- "Enzymes and Coenzymes"
    Discovery Education-"How to Use a Microscope"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 1, pg 131 "Is it Made of Cells?", Volume 2, pg 137 "Whale and Shrew", Volume 3, pg 117 "Cells and Size"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 4, pg 91 "Is it Food?"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 2, pg 113 "Is It Food for Plants?"; pg 121 "Giant Sequoia Tree"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 3, pg 131 "Respiration"; Volume 4, pg 91 "Is it Food?"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 4, pg 91 "Is it Food?"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 2, pg 113 "Is It Food for Plants?"; pg 121 "Giant Sequoia Tree"
    Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 3, pg 131 "Respiration"; Volume 4, pg 91 "Is it Food?"
    Discovery Education "Fermentation-Harmful Bacteria"
    *Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 3, pg 125 "Sam's Puppy"