Grade 11 Chemistry: Structure and Properites of Matter, Semester 1Subject: ScienceGrade: 11
Timeline: 18 weeks
Title: Structure and Properties of Matter
Structure and Properties of Matter Overview:Topics Covered in Keystone Chemistry Standards Module A:Many natural phenomena can be explained by understanding what happens on themolecular level. Students will see these mysteries unravel as they study explorethe interactions between and among different types of matter. This course serves as an introduction to thebasic principles of chemistry including, classification of matter, observableand measurable properties of matter, atomic and molecular structure, periodicproperties and trends, bonding, chemical interactions, chemical formulas andcalculation, and the mole concept. Inquiry based laboratory investigations are an integral component ofthis course and will be used to introduce, reinforce and apply real worldrelevance to content.
Unit Objectives:The objectives of this unit are to apply the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Crosscutting Concepts that bridge disciplinary boundaries, using core ideas throughout the fields of science and engineering.Patterns
- Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena. (HS-PS1-1),(HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-5)
Energy and Matter
- In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved. (HS-PS1-8)
- The total amount of energy and matter in closed systems is conserved. (HS-PS1-7)
- Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system. (HS-PS1-4)
Cause and Effect
- Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-5)
- Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect. (HS-PS2-3)
Stability and Change
- Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable. (HS-PS1-6)
Structure and Function
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- Investigating or designing new systems or structures requires a detailed examination of the properties of different materials, the structures of different components, and connections of components to reveal its function and/or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-6)
Connections to Nature of Science
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems
Focus StandardsPA Chemistry Keystone Eligible ContentCHEM.A.1.1 Identify and describe how observable and measurable properties can be used to classify and describe matter and energy.
- Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-PS1-7)
CHEM.A.1.1.1 Classify physical or chemical changes within a system in terms of matter and/or energy.
CHEM.A.1.1.2 Classify observations as qualitative and/or quantitative.
CHEM.A.1.1.3 Utilize significant figures to communicate the uncertainity in a quantitative observation.
CHEM.A.1.1.4 Relate the physical properties of matter to its atomic or molecular structure.
CHEM.A.1.1.5 Apply a systematic set of rules (IUPAC) for naming compounds and writing chemical formulas (e.g., binary covalent, binary ionic, ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions).
CHEM.A.2.1.1 describe the evolution of atomic theory leading to the current model of the atom based on the works
of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherfore, and Bohr.
CHEM.A.2.1.2 Differentiate between the mass number of an isotope and the average atomic mass of an element.
CHEM.A.2.2.1 Predict the ground state electronic configuration and/or orbital diagram for a given atom or ion.
CHEM.A.2.2.2 Predict characteristics of an atom or an ion based on its location on the periodic table (e.g., number of valence electrons, potential types of bonds, reactivity).
CHEM.A.2.2.4 relate the existence of quantized energy levels to atomic emission spectra.
CHEM.A.2.3.1 Explain how the periodicity of chemical properties led to the arrangement of elements on the periodic table.
CHEM.A.2.3.2 Compare and/or predict the properties (e.g., electron affinity, ionization energy, chemical reactivity, electronegavity, atomic radius) of selected elements by using their locations on the periodic table and known trends.
CHEM.B.1.3.1 Explain how atoms combine to form compounds through ionic and covalent bonding.
CHEM.B.1.3.2 Classify a bond as being polar covalent, non-polar covalent, or ionic.
CHEM.B.1.3.2 Classify a bond as being polar covalent, non-polar covalent, or ionic.
CHEM.B.1.3.3 Use illustrations to predict the polarity of a molecule.
CHEM.B.1.4.1 Recognize and describe different types of models that can be used to illustrate the bonds that hold atoms together in a compound (e.g., computer models, ball-and-stick models, graphical models, solid-sphere models, structural formulas, skeletal formulas, Lweis dot structures).
CHEM.B.1.4.2 Utilize Lewis dot structures to predict the structure and bonding in simple compounds.
CHEM.B.1.1.1 Apply the mole concept to representative particles (e.g., counting, determining mass of atoms, ions, molecules, and/or formula units).
CHEM.B.1.2.1 Determine the empirical and molecular formulas of compounds.
CHEM.B.1.2.2 Apply the law of definite proportions to the classification of elements and compounds as pure substances.
CHEM.B.1.2.3 Relate the percent composition and mass of each element present in a compound.
Next Generation Science Standards - High School - Disciplinary Core IdeasPS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
- Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. (HS-PS1-1)
- The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states. (HS-PS1-1),(HS-PS1-2)
- The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms. (HS-PS1-3),(secondary to HS-PS2-6)
- A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart. (HS-PS1-4)
PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
- Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules, with consequent changes in the sum of all bond energies in the set of molecules that are matched by changes in kinetic energy. (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5)
- In many situations, a dynamic and condition-dependent balance between a reaction and the reverse reaction determines the numbers of all types of molecules present. (HS-PS1-6)
- The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of the chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-7)
PS1.C: Nuclear Processes
- Nuclear processes, including fusion, fission, and radioactive decays of unstable nuclei, involve release or absorption of energy. The total number of neutrons plus protons does not change in any nuclear process. (HS-PS1-8)
PS2.B: Types of Interactions
- Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects. (secondary to HS-PS1-1),(secondary to HS-PS1-3)
PS4.A: Wave Properties
- The wavelength and frequency of a wave are related to one another by the speed of travel of the wave, which depends on the type of wave and the medium through which it is passing. (HS-PS4-1)
- Information can be digitized (e.g., a picture stored as the values of an array of pixels); in this form, it can be stored reliably in computer memory and sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses. (HS-PS4-2),(HS-PS4-5)
- [From the 3–5 grade band endpoints] Waves can add or cancel one another as they cross, depending on their relative phase (i.e., relative position of peaks and troughs of the waves), but they emerge unaffected by each other. (Boundary: The discussion at this grade level is qualitative only; it can be based on the fact that two different sounds can pass a location in different directions without getting mixed up.) (HS-PS4-3)
PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation
- Electromagnetic radiation (e.g., radio, microwaves, light) can be modeled as a wave of changing electric and magnetic fields or as particles called photons. The wave model is useful for explaining many features of electromagnetic radiation, and the particle model explains other features. (HS-PS4-3)
- When light or longer wavelength electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in matter, it is generally converted into thermal energy (heat). Shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) can ionize atoms and cause damage to living cells. (HS-PS4-4)
- Photoelectric materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency. (HS-PS4-5)
PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation
- Multiple technologies based on the understanding of waves and their interactions with matter are part of everyday experiences in the modern world (e.g., medical imaging, communications, scanners) and in scientific research. They are essential tools for producing, transmitting, and capturing signals and for storing and interpreting the information contained in them. (HS-PS4-5)
ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution
Concepts - Students will know:how to design an experiment using scientific method.how to identify the physical and chemical properties of matter.how to classify matter.the significant events in the history of atomic theory.the major outcomes and applications of modern atomic theory.how to make atomic numbers and atomic mass calculationshow to use quantum numbers in describing electron location in a ground state atom.how to write and use electron configurations.the major events in periodic table origins.the identity and characteristics of periodic table groups and families.how to identigy and use the phenomena of periodic trends.how ionic, covalent and metallic bonds are formed.how to name ionic compounds.how to name covalent compounds.how to write correct chemical formulas.how to construct Lewis structures.how to predict molecular geometry.how to describe and predict intermolecular forces between molecules.how to calculate chemical formulas, molecular mass and moles.
- Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (secondary to HS-PS1-6)
Competencies -Students will be able to:NGSS Performance Expectations
Students who demonstrate understanding can:
HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predictthe relative properties of elementsbased on the patternsof electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.[Clarification Statement: Examples of properties that could be predicted from patterns could include reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, numbers of bonds formed, and reactions with oxygen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to main group elements. Assessment does not include quantitative understanding of ionization energy beyond relative trends.] HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidenceto compare the structure of substances at the bulk scaleto infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole). Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials (such as graphite). Examples of bulk properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Raoult’s law calculations of vapor pressure.] HS-PS1-4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energyfrom a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total bond energy changes during a chemical reaction from the bond energies of reactants and products.] HS-PS1-7. Use mathematical representations to support the claimthat atoms, and therefore mass,are conservedduring a chemical reaction.[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using mathematical ideas to communicate the proportional relationships between masses of atoms in the reactants and the products, and the translation of these relationships to the macroscopic scale using the mole as the conversion from the atomic to the macroscopic scale. Emphasis is on assessing students’ use of mathematical thinking and not on memorization and rote application of problem-solving techniques.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include complex chemical reactions.] HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about whythe molecular-level structure is importantin the functioning of designed materials.*[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the attractive and repulsive forces that determine the functioning of the material. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided molecular structures of specific designed materials.] HS-PS4-1. Use mathematical representations to support a claim regardingrelationships amongthe frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.[Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass, sound waves traveling through air and water, and seismic waves traveling through the Earth.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to algebraic relationships and describing those relationships qualitatively.]*identify and utilize laboratory equipment*follow laboratory safety procedures and recognize safety symbols.*use and convert metric units using dimensional analysis*design a controlled experiment utilizing the collection and analysis of data*measure to proper significant figures*convert measurements using scientific notation*describe the different fields of chemistry*distinguish between physical and chemical properties.*classify matter as an element, compound or mixture.*identify the states of matter.*describe and give examples of physical changes.*describe and recognize indications of chemical changes.*apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.* distinguish between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.*use lab equipment to separate mixtures.*describe the evolution of atomic theory leading to the current model of the atom based on the works of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr.*explain the principles of the electron cloud model.*distinguish among subatomic particles.*calculate number of protons, neutrons and electrons for atoms, ions and isotopes.*differentiate and explain the relationship between atomic number and atomic weight of elements.*calculate average atomic weight.*list and explain the four quantum numbers used in describing electron behavior.*describe electromagnetic spectrum.*relate the existence of quantized energy levels to atomic emission spectra.*write electron configurations for elements using aufbau principle.*apply Hund's rule in electron configurations.*apply Pauli Exclusion Principle in orbital diagrams.*construct Lewis Dot diagrams for atoms and ions.*determine charges of ions based on configurations.*describe the development of the periodic table.*explain why elements in a group share similar properties.*identify group and family names.*identify regions of metals, nonmetals and metalloids and their characteristics.*predict and explain changes in atomic radius.*predict and explain changes in shielding effect.*predict and explain ionization energy.*predict and explain electron affinity.*predict and explain electronegativity.*predict and explain chemical reactivity.*define how the three types of chemical bonds form. *predict the type of bond that will form between two given elements.*explain the properties of ionic versus covalent compounds based on the octet rule.*name binary ionic compounds.*name ionic compounds containing transition metals.*name ionic compunds containing polyatomic ions.*name common acids.*apply a system of prefixes to name covalent molecules.*predict the type of compound.*apply the appropriate method to predict the formula based on the octet rule.*describe the formation of single, double and triple covalent bonds.*construct Lewis structures of molecules.*construct resonance structures and explain why resonance occurs.*define and predict bond length and bond strength.*explain and apply the VSEPR theory to predict molecular geometry.*name and identify bond angle and shape of molecules.*describe electronegativity and how it determines polarity.*define and explain hydrogen bonding, dipole interaction and London dispersion forces.*predict which intermolecular force would act upon a molecule based on its polarity.*calculate the molar mass and moles of a compound.*calculate percent composition.*determine percent composition of hydrates from empirical data.*calculate empirical formulas from experimental data.*calculate molecular formulas using molar mass and empirical or composition data.Assessments:*Daily formal or informal Formative assessments*Performance assessment(s)*Structured Science Notebooking*Formal Lab reports*Summative assessment(s)Elements of Instruction:Next Generation Science Standards - High School Chemistry - Science and Engineering Practices
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Asking questions and defining problems in grades 9–12 builds from grades K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.
- Evaluate questions that challenge the premise(s) of an argument, the interpretation of a data set, or the suitability of a design. (HS-PS4-2)
Developing and Using Models
Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.
- Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system. (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-8)
- Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system. (HS-PS1-1)
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.
- Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution. (HS-PS2-1)
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.
- Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly. (HS-PS1-3)
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.
- Use mathematical representations of phenomena to support claims. (HS-PS1-7)
- Create a computational model or simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system. (HS-PS3-1)
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.
- Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects. (HS-PS1-5)
- Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future. (HS-PS1-2)
- Refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS-PS1-6)
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.
- Communicate scientific and technical information (e.g. about the process of development and the design and performance of a proposed process or system) in multiple formats (including orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically). (HS-PS2-6)
- Evaluate the validity and reliability of multiple claims that appear in scientific and technical texts or media reports, verifying the data when possible. (HS-PS4-4)
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about natural and designed worlds. Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.
- Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments. (HS-PS4-3)
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Connections to Nature of Science
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena
Differentiation:Each lesson has differentiation options for each portion of the lesson. Additional differentiation options are listed with directions and student masters in the Teacher’s Guide.Remediation could include: using word walls, using flip charts or foldables, peer teaching, teaming with math department for calculation based problems.Extentions could include: independant research, inquiry based experiments, exploration of topics.Interdisciplinary Connections:Writing in the Sciences is connected to Literacy Common Core Shifts and Standards.
- Theories and laws provide explanations in science. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
- Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
- A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-PS4-3)
ELA/Literacy - RST.9-10.7 Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HS-PS1-1) RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-5) WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-5) WHST.9-12.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2) WHST.9-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-6) WHST.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3) WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3) SL.11-12.5 Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4) RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1) WHST.11-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS2-6) WHST.11-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS2-3),(HS-PS2-5) WHST.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS2-5)WHST.11-
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-5)
WHST.9-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS3-3),(HS-PS3-4),(HS-PS3-5) WHST.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS3-4),(HS-PS3-5) WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS3-4),(HS-PS3-5) SL.11-12.5 Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS3-1),(HS-PS3-2),(HS-PS3-5) RST.9-10.8 Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-PS4-2),(HS-PS4-3),(HS-PS4-4) RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS4-2),(HS-PS4-3),(HS-PS4-4) RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS4-1),(HS-PS4-4) RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-PS4-2),(HS-PS4-3),(HS-PS4-4) WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS4-5) WHST.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS4-4)Problem Solving in the Sciences is connected with the Mathematics Common Core Shifts and Standards. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7) MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-8) HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7),(HS-PS1-8) HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-7),(HS-PS1-8) HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7),(HS-PS1-8) HSA.SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4) HSA.SSE.B.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4) HSA.CED.A.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2) HSA.CED.A.2 Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2) HSA.CED.A.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2) HSF-IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1) HSS-IS.A.1 Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)Additional Resources / Games:Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 3, pg 101 "What is a Hypothesis?"Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 1, pg 73 "Is it Melting?", and pg 91 "Rusty Nails"Formative Assessment Probe Series Volume 2, pg 19 "Comparing Cubes", pg 41 "Solids and Holes", p. 47 "Turning the Dial", pg 53 "Boiling Time and Temperature", pg 59 "Freezing Ice", Volume 3 pg. 25 "Is It a Solid?"