Physical Science Semester 1
Subject: Physical Science
Grade: 10-12
Timeline: 18 weeks
Semester 1 Title: Energy and Motion
Energy and Motion Overview: Students in Physical Science are developing their understanding of four core ideas in the physical sciences; these include the most fundamental concepts from physics and chemistry. The performance expectations include: Matter and its Interactions, Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions, Energy, and Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer (NGSS).
The performance expectation Matter and its Functions helps students answer the question, "How can one explain the structure, properties, and interactions of matter?" In Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions, students are attempting to answer the question, "How can one explain and predict interactions between objects and within systems of objects?" In Energy, students are attempting to answer the question, "How is energy transferred and conserved?" and in Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer, students are attempting to answer the question, "How are waves used to transfer energy and and send and store information?"
The focus is on developing and using models, planning and conducting investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, using mathematical and computational thinking, and constructing explanations. Students are also expected to understand several engineering practices including design and evaluation (NGSS).
Energy and Motion Objectives:NGSS Crosscutting Concepts for HS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Patterns- Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena (HS-PS2-4).
Cause and Effect- Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-5). Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect (HS-PS2-3).
Systems and System Models- When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and intial conditions of the system need to be defined (HS-PS2-2).
Structure and Function- Investigating or designing new systems or structures requires a detailed examination of the properties of different materials, the structures of different components to reveal its function and/or solve a problem (HS-PS2-2).
NGSS Crosscutting Concepts for HS-PS3 Energy
Cause and Effect- Cause and Effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for complex natural and human designed systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system (HS-PS3-5).
Systems and System Models- When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial condictions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models (HS-PS3-4). Models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but therse predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in models (HS-PS3-1).
Energy and Matter- Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into out of, and within that system (HS-PS3-3). Energy cannot be created or destroyed-- only moves between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems (HS-PS3-2).
NGSS Crosscutting Concepts for Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Cause and Effect- Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects (HS-PS4-1). Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and proedicted for complex and natural human systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system (HS-PS4-4). Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect (HS-PS4-5).
Systems and System Models- Models (e.g., physical mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions- including energy, matter, and information flows-within and between systems at different scales (HS-PS4-3).
Stability and Change- Systems can be designed for greater or lesser stability (HS-PS4-2).
Focus Standards:
Biology Keystone Eligible Content
BIO.B.3.3.1 - Distinguish between the scientific terms: hypothesis, inference, law, theory, principle, fact, and observation.
NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas for HS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
PS2.A: Forces and Motion- Newton's second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic objects (HS-PS2-1). Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the velocity of the object. In any system, total momentum is always conserved (HS-PS2-2). If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system HS-PS2-2), (HS-PS2-3).
PS2.B: Types of Interactions- Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law provide the mathematical models to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and electrostatic forces between distant objects (HS-PS2-4). Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and magnetic) permeating space taht can transfer energy through space. Magnets or electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic fields cause electric fields (HS-PS2-4), (HS-PS2-5). Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects (HS-PS2-6).
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy-...and "electircal energy" may mean energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by electrical currents.
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems- Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution- Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed.
NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas for HS-PS3 Energy
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy - Energy is a quantitative propertiy of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system's total energy is conserved, even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms (HS-PS3-1), (HS-PS3-20). At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as motion, sound, light, and thermal energy (HS-PS3-2), (HS-PS3-3). These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields (which mediate interactions between particles). This last concept includes radiation a phenomenon in which energy stored in fields moves across space (HS-PS3-2).
PS3.B:Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer- Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system (HS-PS3-1). Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to another and transferred between systems (HS-PS3-1) (HS-PS3-4).
Mathematical expressions, which quantify the stored energy in a system depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles, compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed, allows to conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe system behavior (HS-PS3-1). The availability of energy limits what can occur in any sytem HS-PS3-1). Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states that is, toward more uniform energy distribution (e.g. water environment cool down) (HS-PS3-4).
PS3.C: Rleationship Between Energy and Forces- When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy stored in the field is changes (HS-PS3-5).
PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes- Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms for example to thermal energy in the surrounding environment (HS-PS3-3), (HS-PS3-4).
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems- Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements.
NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas for HS-PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes- Solar cells are human-made devices that likewise capture the sun's energy and produce electrical energy (HS-PS4-5).
PS4.A: Wave Properties - The wavelength and frequency of a wave are related to one another by the speed of travel of the wave, which depends on the type of wave and the medium through which it is passing (HS-PS4-1). Information can be digitized (e.g., a picture stored as the values of an array of pixels); in this form, it can be stored reliably in computer memory and sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses (HS-PS4-2), (HS-PS4-5). Waves can add or cancel one another as they cross, depending on their relative phase (i.e., relative position of peaks and troughs of the waves), but they emerge unaffected by each other (HS-PS4-3).
PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation - Electromagnetic radiation (e.g., radio, microwaves, light) can be modeled as a wave of changing electric and magnetic fields or as particles called photons. The wave model is useful for explaining many features of electromagnetic radiation, and the particle model explains other features (HS-PS4-3).
When light or longer waveleght electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in matter, it is generally converted into thermal energy (heat). Shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) can ionize atoms and cause damage to living cells (HS-PS4-4). Photovoltaic materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency (HS-PS4-5).
PS4.C: Inforation Technologies and Instrumentation- Multiple technologies based on the understanding of waves and their interactions with matter are part of everyday experiences in the modern world (e.g., medical imaging, communications, scanners) and in scientific research. They are essential tools for producing, transmitting, and capturing signals and for storing and interpreting the information contained in them (HS-PS4-5).
Concepts - Students will know:
The scientific processes.
Science through Inquiry and the Scientific Method.
How Motion occurs.
Force and Motion.
Newton's Law of Motion.
Types of forces.
The relationship between work and energy.
The conservation of energy.
The relationship between charges and electricity.
Ohm's Law.
The construction of circuits.
Magnets and Electromagnetism.
The relationship between heat and temperature.
The properties of waves.
Competencies -Students will be able to:
- Describe and relate the main branches of science.
- Problem solve.
- Use critical thinking skills.
- Use scientific method.
- List and Use common SI Units and prefixes.
- convert measurements.
- Use scientific notation, significant figures.
- Distinguish between accuracy and precision.
- Interpret line, bar and pie graphs.
- Analyze data.
- Explain the relationship between motion and frame of reference.
- Relate speed to distance: displacement.
- Determine that acceleration occurs with a change in velocity.
- Calculate the acceleration of an object.
- Determine how force affects the motion of an object.
- Explain how friction can impede the motion of objects.
- Describe free fall accelearation.
- Explain the difference between weight and mass.
- State all three of Newton's Law of Motion.
- Calculate acceleration, force, and mass using Newton's Second Law.
- Describe universal forces.
- Identify pairs of forces acting on objects.
- Describe fluid forces; buoyancy.
- Define work, energy, and power.
- Calculate the work done on an object and the rate at which the work is done.
- Use the concept of mechanical advantage to explain how machines make work easier.
- Calculate the mechanical advantage of various machines.
- Name and describe the six simple machines.
- Recognize simple machines within complex machines.
- List and describe types of energy.
- Relate energy to mass.
- Describe conversion of one type of energy to another and the conservation of energy.
- Compare renewable and nonrenewable energy resources.
- Indicate which pairs of charges will repel or attract each other.
- Explain which factors affect the strength of an electric force.
- Describe characteristics of an electrical field due to a charge.
- Describe how batteries are a source of voltage.
- Explain how a potential difference produces a current in a conductor.
- Define resistance.
- Calculate the resistance, current, or voltage given the other quantities.
- Use schematic diagrams to represent circuits.
- Distinguish between open and closed circuits.
- Distinguish between series and parallel circuits.
- Compare the potential drops in both circuits.
- Calculate electric power using voltage and current.
- Explain how fuses and circuit breakers are used to prevent circuit overload.
- Recognize that like magnetic poles repel and unlike attract.
- Describe the magnetic field around a permanent magnet.
- Describe the orientation of the Earth's magnetic field.
- Define heat in terms of average Kinetic energy of atoms or molecules.
- Calculate some kinetic energy of materials.
- Convert temperature reading from the various temperature scales: Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin.
- Describe heat as a form of energy transfer.
- Investigate how heat is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation.
- Distinguish between conductors and insulators.
- Calculate the specific heat of an object.
- Describe the mechanism of different heating and cooling systems, and discuss all advantages and drawbacks.
- Compare energy systems in terms of efficiency.
- Recognize that waves transfer energy.
- Distinguish between mechanical and non-mechanical waves.
- Explain the relationship between particle vibrations and wave motion.
- Distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves.
- Identify the crest, trough, amplitude and wavelength of a wave.
- Define frequency and period.
Assessments:
- formative assessments
- journals and/or science notebooks
- lab reports
- research reports
- oral report
- teacher observation
- performance assessments
- summative assessments
Elements of Instruction:
NGSS Science and Engineering Practices for HS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Planning and Carrying out Investigations- Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9-12 builds K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual mathematical, physical, and empirical models. Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly (HS-PS2-5).
Ananlyzing and Interpreting Data- Analyzing Data in 9-12 builds on K-8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data. Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g. computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution (HS-PS2-1).
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking- Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9-12 level builds on K-8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions. Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations (HS-PS2-2) (HS-PS2-4).
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions- Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs taht are supported by multiple and independent student-genrated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. Apply scientific ideas to solve a design problem, taking into account possible unanticipated effects (HS-PS2-3).
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information- Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9-12 builds on K-8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs. Communicate scientific and technical information (e.g., about the process of development and the design and performamce of a proposed process or system) in multiple formats (including orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically) (HS-PS2-6).
NGSS Science and Engineering Practices for HS-PS3 Energy
Developing and Using Models- Modeling in 9-12 builds on K-8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds. Develop and use a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system (HS-PS3-2), (HS-PS3-5).
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations - Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models. Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, costs, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly (HS-PS3-4).
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking- Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9-12 level builds on K-8 and progresses to using algabraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials, and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions. Create a computational model or simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system (HS-PS3-1).
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions- Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. Design, evaluate, and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade off considerations (HS-PS3-3).
NGSS Science and Engineering Practices for HS-PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Asking Questions and Defining Problems- Asking questions and defining problems in grades 9-12 builds from grades K-8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations. Evaluate questions that challenge the premise(s) of an arguement, the interpretation of a data set, or the suitability of a design (HS-PS4-2).
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking- Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9-12 level builds on K-8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions, including trigonometric functions, exponentials, and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions. Use mathematical representations of phenomena or design solutions to describe and/or support claims and/or explanations (HS-PS4-1).
Engaging in Argument from Evidence- Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about natural and designed worlds. Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind current scientific or historical episodes in science. Evaluate the claims evidence, and reasoning behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments (HS-PS4-3).
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information- Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9-12 builds on K-8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs. Evaluate the validity and reliability of multiple claims that appear in scientific and technical texts or media reports, verifying the data when possible (HS-PS4-4). Communicate technical information or ideas (e.g. about phenomena and/or the process of development and the design and performance of a proposed process or system) in multiple formats (including orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically) (HS-PS4-5).
Connection to Nature of Science- Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena- A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community balidates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accomodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence (HS-PS4-3).
Differentiation:
Each lesson has differentiation options for each portion of the lesson. Additional differentiation options are listed with directions and student masters in the Teacher’s Guide.
Remediation could include: using word walls, using flip charts or foldables, structured notebooks, peer teaching, teaming with the math department for graphing.
Extensions could include: independent research, inquiry based experiments, exploration of topics online.
Interdisciplinary Connections:
- Writing in the Sciences is connected to Literacy Common Core Shifts. Students could use note-booking or journaling, reading informational text and answering text-dependent questions, writing laboratory experiment plans and lab reports, academic and content specific vocabulary.
- Problem Solving in the Sciences is connected with Mathematics Common Core Shifts. Measurement, graphing data, and calculations.