• Physical Science Semester 2


    Subject: Physical Science
    Grade: 10-12
    Timeline: 18 weeks
    Semester 2 Title: Properties of Materials

    Properties of Materials Overview: 
    Students in Physical Science are developing their understanding of four core ideas in the physical sciences; these include the most fundamental concepts from physics and chemistry.  The performance expectations include: Matter and its Interactions, Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions, Energy, and Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer (NGSS). In Semester 2 the focus is on Matter and its Interactions and Energy.
    The performance expectation Matter and its Functions helps students answer the question, "How can one explain the structure, properties, and interactions of matter?"   In Energy, students are attempting to answer the question, "How is energy transferred and conserved?" The focus is on developing and using models, planning and conducting investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, using mathematical and computational thinking, and constructing explanations.  Students are also expected to understand several engineering practices including design and evaluation (NGSS).

    Properties of Materials Objectives:
    NGSS Crosscutting Concepts for HS-PS3 Energy
    Cause and Effect- Cause and Effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for complex natural and human designed systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system (HS-PS3-5).
    Systems and System Models- When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial condictions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models HS-PS3-4).  Models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but therse predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in models HS-PS3-1).
    Energy and Matter- Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into out of, and within that system (HS-PS3-3).  Energy cannot be created or destroyed-- only moves between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems (HS-PS3-2).
    NGSS Crosscutting Concepts for HS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions
    Patterns-Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena (HS-PS1-1), (HSPS1-2), (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-5).
    Energy and Matter- In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved (HS-PS1-8).  The total amount of energy and matter in a closed system is conserved (HS-PS1-7).  Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of and within that system (HS-PS1-4).
    Stability and Change- Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable (HS-PS1-6). 
    NGSS Crosscutting Concepts for HS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions
    Patterns- Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena (HS-PS1-1), (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-5). 
    Energy and Matter- In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved (HS-PS1-8).  The total amount of energy and matter in a closed system is conserved (HS-PS1-7).  Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and mnatter flows into, out of, and within that system (HS-PS1-4).
    Stability and Change- Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable (HS-PS1-6).
    Connections to Nature of Science- Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems- Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent (HS-PS1-7).
     
     
     
     
     
    Focus Standards:
    Biology Keystone Eligible Content
    BIO.B.3.3.1 - Distinguish between the scientific terms: hypothesis, inference, law, theory, principle, fact, and observation.
    Chemistry Keystone Eligible Content
    CHEM.A.1.1.1 Classify physical or chemical changes within a system in terms of matter and/or energy.

    CHEM.A.1.1.2 Classify observations as qualitative and/or quantitative.

    CHEM.A.1.1.3 Utilize significant figures to communicate the uncertainty in a quantitative observation.

    CHEM.A.1.1.4 Relate the physical properties of matter to its atomic or molecular structure.

    CHEM.A.1.2.2 Differentiate between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures (e.g., how such

    mixtures can be separated).

    CHEM.A.2.1.2 Differentiate between the mass number of an isotope and the average atomic mass of an

    element.

    CHEM.A.2.2.2 Predict characteristics of an atom or an ion based on its location on the periodic table

    (e.g., number of valence electrons, potential types of bonds, reactivity).

    CHEM.A.2.3.1 Explain how the periodicity of chemical properties led to the arrangement of elements on

    the periodic table.

    CHEM.B.1.1.1 Apply the mole concept to representative particles (e.g., counting, determining mass of

    atoms, ions, molecules, and/or formula units).

    CHEM.B.1.2.1 Determine the empirical and molecular formulas of compounds.

    CHEM.B.1.2.2 Apply the law of definite proportions to the classification of elements and compounds as

    pure substances.

    CHEM.B.1.2.3 Relate the percent composition and mass of each element present in a compound.

    CHEM.B.1.3.1 Explain how atoms combine to form compounds through ionic and covalent bonding.

    CHEM.B.1.3.2 Classify a bond as being polar covalent, nonpolar covalent, or ionic.

    CHEM.B.1.4.1 Recognize and describe different types of models that can be used to illustrate the bonds

    that hold atoms together in a compound (e.g., computer models, ballandstick models,

    graphical models, solidsphere models, structural formulas, skeletal formulas, Lewis dot

    structures).

    CHEM.B.1.4.2 Utilize Lewis dot structures to predict the structure and bonding in simple compounds.

    CHEM.B.2.1.3 Classify reactions as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement,

    or combustion.

    CHEM.B.2.1.5 Balance chemical equations by applying the Law of Conservation of Matter.


     

    Eligible Content may be assessed using knowledge and/or skills associated with the Nature of Science.
     
    NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas for HS-PS3 Energy
    PS3.A: Definitions of Energy - Energy is a quantitative propertiy of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system.  That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system's total energy is conserved, even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms (HS-PS3-1), (HS-PS3-20).  At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as motion, sound, light, and thermal energy (HS-PS3-2), (HS-PS3-3). These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields (which mediate interactions between particles).  This last concept includes radiation a phenomenon in which energy stored in fields moves across space (HS-PS3-2). 
    PS3.B:Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer- Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system (HS-PS3-1).  Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to another and transferred between systems (HS-PS3-1) (HS-PS3-4).
    Mathematical expressions, which quantify the stored energy in a system depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles, compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed, allows to conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe system behavior (HS-PS3-1).  The availability of energy limits what can occur in any sytem HS-PS3-1). Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states that is, toward more uniform energy distribution (e.g. water environment cool down) (HS-PS3-4).
     PS3.C: Rleationship Between Energy and Forces- When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy stored in the field is changes (HS-PS3-5).
    PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes- Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms for example to thermal energy in the surrounding environment (HS-PS3-3), (HS-PS3-4).
    ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems- Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements.
    NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas for HS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions
    PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter-
    Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons (HS-PS1-1).  The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns.  The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states (HS-PS1-1), (HS-PS1-2).  The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms (HS-PS1-3).  Stable forms of matter are those in which the electric and magnetic field energy is minimized.  A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart (HS-PS1-4).
    PS1.B: Chemical Reactions- Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules, with consequent changes in the sum of all bond energies in the set of molecules that are matched by changes in kinetic energy (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-5).  In many situations, a dynamic and condition-dependent balance between a reaction and the reverse reaction determines the numbers of all types of molecules present (HS-PS1-6).  The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of the chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-7).
    PS1.C: Nuclear Processes- Nuclear processes, including fusion, fission, and radioactive decays of unstable nuclei, involves release or absorption of energy.  The total number of neutrons plus protons does not change in any nuclear process (HS-PS1-8).
    ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution- Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (tradeoffs) may be needed (Secondary to HS-PS1-6).


     
    Concepts - Students will know:
    • The organization and classification of matter.
    • The states of matter.
    • Diagram the atomic theory.
    • Periodic properties.
    • Recognize the periodic trends that exist through the periodic table.
    • Basic math involved in a chemical equation.
    • Bonds that hold substances together.
    • Common names of ionic compounds and molecular compounds.
    • Recognize chemical reactions.
    • Chemical reactions.
    • Chemical rates.
    • The chemical reaction's appliication to the real world.
    • Radioactivity and nuclear reactions.

     

     
     
    Competencies -Students will be able to:
    •  Explain the relationship between atoms, elements, matter.
    • Classify types of matter and materials (including pure substances and mixtures).
    • Distinguish between elements and compounds.
    • Use Kinetic Theory to describe the properties of structure of different states of matter.
    • Describe energy transfers involved in changes of state.
    • Describe and apply laws of conservation of mass and energy and their application to changes of state.
    • Distinguish between chemical and physical properties of matter.
    • Distinguish between chemical and physical changes in matter.
    • Perform calculations involving density.
    • Evaluate materials and their properties for different materials.
    • Explain Dalton's Atomic Theory and describe why it was more successful than Democritus' theory.
    • Compare and contrast Bohr's model with the modern model of the atom.
    • State the charge, mass, and location of each subatomic particle, according to the modern model of the atom.
    • Relate organization of the periodic table to the arrangement of the electrons within an atom.
    • Explain why some atoms gain or lose electrons to form ions.
    • Determine how many protons, neutrons, and electrons an isotope has, given its symbol, atomic number, and mass number.
    • Describe how the abundance of isotopes affect an element's average atomic number.
    • Locate and name the families on Periodic Table.
    • Relate an element's chemical properties to its electron configuration.
    • Explain the relationship between a mole of a substance and Avogadro's constant.
    • Find the molar mass of an element.
    • Solve problems converting amount of an element in moles to its mass in grams and vice versa.
    • Relate the chemical formula of a compound to the relative number of atoms or ions present in a compound.
    • Use models to visualize a compound's chemical structure.
    • Describe how structure affects its properties.
    • Distinguish between ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds.
    • Compare the properties of substances with different types of bonds.
    • Name simple ionic compounds.
    • Distinguish a covalent compound's empirical formula from its molecular formula.
    • Identify evidence of a chemical reaction.
    • Explain changes in structure and motion of atoms and molecules.
    • Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions.
    • Distinguish among the five types of chemical reactions.
    • Predict the products of some of the reactions.
    • Demonstrate how to balance a chemical reaction.
    • Interpret chemical equations to determine the mole ratios.
    • Calculate the relative amounts of masses of reactants and products from a chemical equation stoichiometry.
    • Identify ways to speed up a chemical reaction.
    • Understand the chemical reactions that lead to acid rain.
    • Describe the types of radioactiviy and the effects of radiation.

     

       
    Assessments:
    • formative assessments   
    • journals and/or science notebooks 
    • lab reports  
    • research reports
    • oral report   
    • teacher observation
    • performance assessments
    • summative assessments  

     
    Elements of Instruction:
    NGSS Science and Engineering Practices for HS-PS3 Energy
    Developing and Using Models-
    Modeling in 9-12 builds on K-8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds. Develop and use a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system (HS-PS3-2), (HS-PS3-5).
    Planning and Carrying Out Investigations - Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models. Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, costs, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly (HS-PS3-4).
    Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking- Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9-12 level builds on K-8 and progresses to using algabraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials, and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions. Create a computational model or simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system (HS-PS3-1).
    Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions- Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. Design, evaluate, and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade off considerations (HS-PS3-3).
     
    NGSS Science and Engineering  Practices for HS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions
    Developing and Using Models- Developing and using models in 9-12 builds on K-8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.  Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-8).  Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system (HS-PS1-1).
    Planning and Carrying Out Investigations- Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.  Plan and conduct and investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of hte data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly (HS-PS1-3).
    Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking- Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9-12 level builds on K-8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze represent, and model data.  Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.  Use mathematical representations of phenomena to support claims (HS-PS1-7).
    Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions- Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.  Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects (HS-PS1-5).  Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students' own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world today operate as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future (HS-PS1-2).  Refine a solution to a complex, real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations (HS-PS1-6).
     
      
    Differentiation:
    Each lesson has differentiation options for each portion of the lesson. Additional differentiation options are listed with directions and student masters in the Teacher’s Guide.
    Remediation could include: using word walls, using flip charts or foldables, structured notebooks, peer teaching, teaming with the math department for graphing.
    Extensions could include: independent research, inquiry based experiments, exploration of topics online.
     

       
      Interdisciplinary Connections:
      •  Writing in the Sciences is connected to Literacy Common Core Shifts.  Students could use note-booking or journaling, reading informational text and answering text-dependent questions, writing laboratory experiment plans and lab reports, academic and content specific vocabulary. 
      • Problem Solving in the Sciences is connected with Mathematics Common Core Shifts.  Measurement, graphing data, and calculations.