• Elementary Science Grade 1 - Unit 2

    Subject:  Science
    Grade:  Grade 1
    Timeline:  12 Weeks
    Unit Title:  Forces and Motion

    Unit Overview:
    In this unit, students explore that we live in a world where everything seems to be in motion, but not everything moves in the same way. They create and explore models to demonstrate and explore movement and its variables.  Students also plan and carry out investigations with sound and with magnetic force.

    Unit Objectives:
    The objectives of this unit are to apply the Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) Crosscutting Concepts that bridge disciplinary boundaries, uniting core ideas through the fields of science and engineering.
    Cause and Effect:
    • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.

    Focus Standards:
    PSSA Eligible Content:
    S4.C.1.1.1: Use physical properties (e.g. math, shapes, size, volume,color,texture, magnetic property, date (i.e. solid, liquid, or gas), conductivity (i.e. electrical or heat) to describe matter.
    S4.C.1.1.2: Categorize/group objects using physical characteristics.
    NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas: 
    PS2.A: Forces and Motion  
    • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
    • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
    PS2.B: Types of Interactions
    • When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
    PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces
    • A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.
    ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems
    • A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions.

    Concepts - Students will know:
    • objects can be balanced in many ways and can be changed by counter-weighting.
    • a stable position is one that is steady and the place on which an object balances is called a balance point.
    • tops exhibit rotational motion.
    • a twirler is a simple winged system that spins when it interacts with air.
    • a wheel and axle system comprises a circular rotating disc mounted on an axial shaft.
    • spheres are round in all dimensions and can roll in any direction.
    • vibrating objects make sound; sound always comes from a vibrating object.
    • pitch is how high or how low a sound is.
    • volume is how loud or soft a sound is.
    • magnetic force can apply pushes and pulls.
    • magnetic force can pull other magnets and some objects from a distance.
    Competencies -Students will be able to:
    • create and use representational models to demonstrate stable balance systems.
    • plan and execute examples of stable balanced systems.
    • discover different ways to produce rotational motion.
    • construct and evaluate toys that demonstrate spinning and explain how they operate.
    • design runways to control or change the motion of marbles.
    • communicate observations and compare stability and motion, using precise vocabulary.
    • plan and carry out investigations with sound and with magnetic force.
    • analyze and interpret observational data.

    Formative assessments: 
    • Pre Assessment
    • Journals
    • Teacher Observation
    • Performance Tasks 
    Summative Assessments:  
    • Post Assessment

    Elements of Instruction:
    The NGSS identifies eight Science and Engineering Practices.  The two that follow apply to this unit.   
    Planning and Carrying Out Investigations:

     Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to support explanations or design solutions.

    • With guidance, plan and conduct an investigation in collaboration with peers.

    Analyzing and Interpreting Data:   

    Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing observations.

    • Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended.
    • write a how-to guide to create a new shape out of tag board and explore ways to balance with and without counter weights
    • write and illustrate poems about spinning
    • write rolling sentences using descriptive words to describe the motion
    • draw and compare two runways that a marble might roll through from top to bottom
    • make and explore rubber-band guitars
    • detect hidden magnets between cardboard sheets
    • explore magnets of different size, shapes, and strengths

    Interdisciplinary Connections:
    Science/Literacy Boxes

    Additional Resources / Games:
    Teacher resources may be found on Balance and Motion Teacher Resource DVD located in the binder