• # Elementary Mathematics Kindergarten Unit 4

Subject: Mathematics
Timeline: 10 days
Unit 4 Title: 3D Shapes

Unit Overview:

This unit will give the opportunity for students to learn about 3-dimensional shapes in their everyday lives.  They will have the opportunity to give specific names to the various 3D shapes.  In addition to learning about the 3-dimensional shapes they will also be able to build the shapes and compare them to two-dimensional shapes.

Unit Objectives:

At the end of this unit, all students must be able to recognize 3D shapes in their environment.  They also must be able to name each of the 3-Dimensional shapes they are introduced to throughout the unit.  Finally, they must be able to explain the difference between 3D and 2D shapes.

Focus Standards:

PA.CCSS.Math.Content.CC.2.3.K.A.1  Identify and describe two- and three- dimensional shapes. (K.G.1, K.G.2, K.G.3)
PA.CCSS.Math.Content.CC.2.3.K.A.2  Analyze, compare, create, and compose two- and three-dimensional shapes. (K.G.5)

Mathematical Practice Standards:

#1  Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals.  They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt.  Proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method.  They continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?”  They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

#4  Model with mathematics.

Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation.

#5  Use appropriate tools strategically.

These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler,a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts.

#6  Attend to precision.

Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions.

Concepts - Students will know:
• How to find 3D shapes
• How to name 3D shapes
• The difference between 2D and 3D shapes
Competencies -Students will be able to:
• Find 3D shapes in their environment
• Name each 3D shape
• Give examples of attributes for 2D and 3D shapes

Assessments:
• Kindergarten Checklist Components

Elements of Instruction:

Students describe their physical world using geometric ideas (e.g., shape, orientation, spatial relations) and vocabulary. They identify, name, and describe basic two-dimensional shapes, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, and hexagons, presented in a variety of ways (e.g., with different sizes and orientations), as well as three-dimensional shapes such as cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres. They use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their environment and to construct more complex shapes.

Differentiation:

Each lesson has differentiation options for each portion of the lesson. Additional differentiation options are listed with directions and student masters in the Teacher’s Guide.

Interdisciplinary Connections:
• Math routines
• Literature books

Additional Resources / Games:

Students will play a variety of games that directly support the content of the lesson and the overall goals for the unit. Games for unit four included:
• Shape Bingo
• 3D Bingo