• Elementary Mathematics Kindergarten Unit 6

    Subject: Mathematics
    Grade: Kindergarten
    Timeline: 13 days
    Unit 6 Title: Addition and Subtraction

    Unit Overview: 
    This unit will give the opportunity for students to be introduced to addition and subtraction.  They will have the opportunity to compare numbers, as well as, be introduced to the operations of addition and subtraction.  The students will learn different strategies for addition and subtractions.  The students will then be able to use manipulatives and song play to solve number stories.

    Unit Objectives:
    At the end of this unit, all students must be able to identify the addition sign and subtraction sign.  Students must be able to complete addition and subtraction problems using manipulatives.  Students must also be able to explain why they would add or subtract to solve number stories. 

    Focus Standards:
    PA.CCSS.Math.Content.CC.2.2.K.A.1  Extend the concepts of putting together and taking apart to add and subtract within 10. (K.OA.1, K.OA.2, K.OA.5)

    Mathematical Practice Standards:   
    #1  Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 
    Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals.  They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt.  Proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method.  They continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?”  They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

    #4  Model with mathematics. 
    Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation.   

    #5  Use appropriate tools strategically.
    These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler,a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts.

    #6  Attend to precision. 
    Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions.

    Concepts - Students will know:
    • What an addition sign looks like
    • What a subtraction sign looks like
    • How to use manipulatives to solve addition and subtraction problems
    • Strategies to solve number stories
    Competencies -Students will be able to:
    • Solve addition problems from 0-5
    • Solve subtraction problems from 0-5
    • Use manipulatives to solve addition and subtraction problems
    • Solve number stories

    • Kindergarten Checklist Components

    Elements of Instruction:
    Students use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set; counting out a given number of objects; comparing sets or numerals; and modeling simple joining and separating situations with sets of objects, or eventually with equations such as 5 + 2 = 7 and 7 – 2 = 5. (Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.) Students choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the cardinalities of small sets of objects, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number of objects in combined sets, or counting the number of objects that remain in a set after some are taken away.

    Each lesson has differentiation options for each portion of the lesson. Additional differentiation options are listed with directions and student masters in the Teacher’s Guide.

    Interdisciplinary Connections:
    • Math routines
    • Literature books

    Additional Resources / Games:
    Students will play a variety of games that directly support the content of the lesson and the overall goals for the unit. Games for unit six included:
    • Monster Squeeze
    • Top-It