• Sound

Learning Targets:

1. Describe the connection between sound and vibrating objects
2. Explain sound as the compression and rarefication of molecules due to vibrating objects
3. Define audible, infrasonic, and ultrasonic sound waves
4. Relate the speed of sound to physical properties of the propagation medium and its temperature
5. Describe the average intensity of a sound wave, the threshold of hearing, and the threshold of pain
6. Define and describe the decibel scale for sound waves
7. Apply the equations for the sound intensity and decibel levels
8. Explain and apply wave fronts and waves to spherical waves and plane waves
9. Determine the intensity of a sound wave based on the distance from the source
10. Explain the concept of the Doppler effect
11. Determine the wave characteristics of sounds subjected to the Doppler effect
12. State the definition of the Mach number
13. Explain the physical conditions resulting in a shock waves
14. Describe the physical conditions needed to create constructive and destructive interference of sound waves
15. Apply the concepts of interference to problems involving two sound waves
16. Define what a standing sound wave is
17. Define the fundamental frequency of a string fixed on both ends and how the relationship between string length and wavelength
18. Define standing wave, node, and antinode
19. Explain the conditions needed to create a standing wave
20. Derive the relationship between a strings fundamental frequency and higher harmonics
21. Calculate the harmonics of a strings and wires under tension
22. Describe resonance due to forced vibrations
23. Explain physical examples of resonance
24. Contrast standing waves in air columns open at one end and at both ends
25. Apply the equations for frequencies of open and closed pipes to harmonic systems
26. Explain the interference phenomenon of beats
27. Apply the concept of beats to two-frequency situations

Powerpoints:

1. Properties of Sound
2. Doppler Effect
3. Standing Waves and Instrumentation
4. Harmonics and Beats

Assignments:

1. Sound Waves Worksheet
2. What Did You Say?
3. Doppler Effect Worksheet
4. Harmonics Worksheet

Labs:

1. Speed of Sound Lab
2. Sound Lab