• Sound

    Learning Targets:

    1. Describe the connection between sound and vibrating objects
    2. Explain sound as the compression and rarefication of molecules due to vibrating objects
    3. Define audible, infrasonic, and ultrasonic sound waves
    4. Relate the speed of sound to physical properties of the propagation medium and its temperature
    5. Describe the average intensity of a sound wave, the threshold of hearing, and the threshold of pain
    6. Define and describe the decibel scale for sound waves
    7. Apply the equations for the sound intensity and decibel levels
    8. Explain and apply wave fronts and waves to spherical waves and plane waves
    9. Determine the intensity of a sound wave based on the distance from the source
    10. Explain the concept of the Doppler effect
    11. Determine the wave characteristics of sounds subjected to the Doppler effect
    12. State the definition of the Mach number
    13. Explain the physical conditions resulting in a shock waves
    14. Describe the physical conditions needed to create constructive and destructive interference of sound waves
    15. Apply the concepts of interference to problems involving two sound waves
    16. Define what a standing sound wave is
    17. Define the fundamental frequency of a string fixed on both ends and how the relationship between string length and wavelength
    18. Define standing wave, node, and antinode
    19. Explain the conditions needed to create a standing wave
    20. Derive the relationship between a strings fundamental frequency and higher harmonics
    21. Calculate the harmonics of a strings and wires under tension
    22. Describe resonance due to forced vibrations
    23. Explain physical examples of resonance
    24. Contrast standing waves in air columns open at one end and at both ends
    25. Apply the equations for frequencies of open and closed pipes to harmonic systems
    26. Explain the interference phenomenon of beats
    27. Apply the concept of beats to two-frequency situations


    1. Properties of Sound
    2. Doppler Effect
    3. Standing Waves and Instrumentation
    4. Harmonics and Beats


    1. Sound Waves Worksheet
    2. What Did You Say?
    3. Doppler Effect Worksheet
    4. Harmonics Worksheet


    1. Speed of Sound Lab
    2. Sound Lab