• Life Science Grade 10

    Subject: Life Science
    Grade: 10
    Timeline: year long
    Unit Title: Life Science 

    Unit Overview: 
    Instruction for students in Life Science focuses on these six areas: The Basics of LIfe, The Variety of Life, The Plant Kingdom,  The Animal Kingdom, Ecology and The Human Body.  Sub-ideas include: Characteristics of living things, cell structure, heredity and genetics, life changes over time, classification, living things, their environments and interactions, and the human body systems.
    Unit Objectives:

    The objectives of this unit are to apply the Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) Crosscutting Concepts that bridge disciplinary boundaries, uniting core ideas throughout the fields of science and engineering.
    Systems and System Models.
    Models can be used to simulate systems and interactions within and between systems at different scales.
    Energy and Matter.
    Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system.
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed -  it only moves from one place to another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems.
    Energy drives the cycling of matter within and between systems.
    Structure and Function  
    Investigating or designing new systems or structures requires a detailed examination of the properties of different materials, the structures of different components, and connections of components to reveal its function and/or to solve a problem.
    Stability and Change  
    Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or destabilize a system.
    Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.
    Cause and Effect.
    Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.

    Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
    The significance of a phenomenon is dependent on the scale, proportion, and quantity at which it occurs.
    Using the concept of orders of magnitude allows one to understand how a model at one scale relates to a model at another scale.
    Algebraic thinking is used to examine scientific data and predict the effect of a change in one variable on another.
    Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at whcih a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
    Focus Standards
    PA Biology Keystone Eligible Content
    BIO.A.1.1 - Explain the characteristics common to all organisms
    BIO.B.3.1.2 Describe the factors that can contribute to the development of new species (e.g., isolating mechanisms, genetic drift, founder effect, migrating)  
    BIO.B.3.2 Analyze the sources of evidence for biological evolution
    BIO.B.3.2.1 Interpret evidence supporting the theory of evolution (i.e., fossil, anatomical, physiological, embryological, biochemical, and universal genetic code)       
    BIO.B.3.3 Apply scientific thinking, processes, tools, and technologies in the study of the theory of evolution
    BIO.B.4.1 Describe ecological levels of organization in the biosphere                       
    BIO.B.4.1.1 Describe the levels of ecological organization (i.e., organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, and biosphere)
    BIO.B.4.2 Describe interactions and relationships in an ecosystem  
    BIO.B.4.2.1 Describe how energy flows through an ecosystem (e.g., food chains, food webs, energy pyramids)
    BIO.B.4.2.3 Describe how matter recycles through an ecosystem (i.e., water cycle, carbon cycle, oxygen cycle, and nitrogen cycle)
    BIO.B.4.2.4 Describe how ecosystems change in response to natural and human disturbances (e.g., climate changes, introduction of nonnative species, pollution, fires)

                              Next Generation Science Standards - High School - Disciplinary Core Ideas


    LS1.A: Structure and Function

    • Systems of specialized cells within organisms  help them perform the essential functions of life.  (HS-LS-1)
    •  All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules.  Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry our most of the work of cells.  (HS-LS-1) (Note:  This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS3-1.)
    • Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)
    • Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system's internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range.  Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) wwhat is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)

    LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

    • In multicellular organisms individual cells grow and then divide via a process called mitosis, thereby allowing the organism to grow.  The organism begins as a single cell (fertilized egg) that  divides successively to produce many cells, with each parent cell passing identical genetic materials (two variants of each chromosome pair) to both daughter cells.  Cellular division and differentiation produce and maintain a complex organism, composed of systems of tissues and organs that work together to meet the needs of the whole organism. (HS-LS1-4)
    LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
    • The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by converting carbon dioxide plus water into sugars plus released oxygen. (HS-LS1-5)

    • The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells. (HS-LS1-6)
    • As matter and energy flow through different organizational levels of living systems, chemical elements are recombined in different ways to form different products. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7)
    • As a result of these chemical reactions, energy is transferred from one system of interacting molecules to another. Cellular respiration is a chemical process in which the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and new compounds are formed that can transport energy to muscles.

    LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits:

    • Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA.  The instructions  for forming species' characteristics are carried in DNA.  All cells in an organism have the same genetic content, but the genes used (expressed) by the cell may be regulated in different ways.  Not all DNA codes for a protein; some segments of DNA are involved in regulatory or structural functions, and some have no as-yet known function. (HS-LS3-1)

    LS3.B: Variation of Traits:

    • In sexual reproduction, chromosomes can sometimes swap sections during the process of meiosis (cell division), thereby creating new genetic combinations and thus more genetic variation.  Although DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, errors do occur and result in mutations, which are also a source of genetic variation.  Environmental factors can also cause mutations in genes, and viable mutations are inherited. (HS-LS3-2)
    •  Environmental factors also affect expression of traits, and hence affect the probability of occurrences of traits in a population.  Thus the variation and distribution of traits observed depends on both genetic and environmental factors. (HS-LS3-2), (HS-LS3-3)

    Concepts - Students will know:
    • the characteristics of living things.
    • the structures and functions of cells.
    • how genes combine.
    • about genetic engineering.
    • about evolution, fossils, and natural selection.
    • the systems used to classify living things.
    • how to list and describe the five recognized kingdoms.
    • the structures of viruses.
    • about bacteria
    • about the Kingdom Protista.
    • about the Kingdom Fungi.
    • how to classify plants
    • the different types and characteristics of plants.
    • the structure and function of plants.
    • about photosynthesis.
    • how plants reproduce.
    •  how animals are classified.
    • the structure and distinguishing characteristics of kingdoms of invertebrates.
    • about regeneration.
    • the metamorphosis in insects.
    • the structure of vertebrates.
    • inate, learned and social behaviors.
    • the parts of an ecosystem.
    • about biomes.
    • that natural resources are renewable and nonrenewable.
    • the relationships of organisms to how they obtain food.
    • how orgaisms interact in an ecosystem.
    • the adaptations of organisms.
    • the cycles in ecosystems.
    • about tissues and organs.
    • the skeletal system.
    • the muscular system.
    • the components of a balanced diet.
    • the digestive system.
    • the circulatory system.
    • the respiratory system.
    • the excretory system.
    • types of immunity.
    • the endocrine system.
    • the nervous system.
    • about the effects of drugs and alcohol on the human body.
    • the reproductive system.
    • the stages of human development.
    Competencies -Students will be able to:
    • identify and describe the branches of life science.                                                                                                 
    • identify the life processes and behaviors of living things.
    • use of microscopes.                  
    • identify the parts of a cell and describe their  functions.               
    • differentiate between plant and animal cells.
    • identify and describe meiosis.                          
    • describe DNA and explain its role in heredity.                      
    • explain dominant and recessive traits.  
    • describe sex linked traits and inherited diseases.
    • describe evidence to support the theory of evolution.                    
    • define and explain Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection. 
    • explain the different levels of classification.
    • name and describe the kingdoms of living organisms.
    • describe the structure of a virus.
    • distinguish between useful and harmful bacteria.
    • identify common protists and how they move.
    • describe the different kinds of fungi.
    • identify the characteristics of plants.
    • describe how bryophytes reproduce.      
    • name and describe the structure of a fern.     
    • name and describe the three types of gymnosperms.             
    • identify monocots and dicots as two kinds of angiosperms.
    • describe the structure and the functions of roots.                             
    • distinguish between herbaceous and woody stems.                                         
    • explain the jobs of stems.                     
    • describe the structure of leaves.
    • explain the importance of photosynthesis.
    • identify the flower as the repoductive organ of a plant.                                 
    • describe the parts of a flower.                            
    • describe how flowering plants reproduce.             
    • explain how seeds and fruits form.                      
    • identify the parts of a seed.                            
    • identify ways that plants reproduce asexually.                         
    • relate different stimuli to the tropisms they cause.
    • identify characteristics used to classify animals.
    • describe the structure of a sponge.                            
    • identify and describe body forms.
    • explain how some organisms can regrow lost parts.
    • identify and describe the stages of metamorphosis.
    • identify the structure of chordates.                      
    • give examples of different types of fish.          
    • identify the characteristics of amphibians.                 
    • explain metamorphosis in frogs.                      
    • explain how reptiles are adapted to life on land.         
    • describe the characteristics of birds.
    • describe inate and learned behaviors.
    • describe the parts of an ecosystem.                    
    • explain how organisms may have the same habitat but not the same niche.                      
    • explain what affects population size.
    • describe the different biomes.                                 
    • describe how communities of organisms develop.
    • distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable natural resources.
    • identify producers and different feeding levels of consumers in an ecosystem.               
    • explain and construct foodchains and webs.
    • explain how interactions between living things maintain balance in an ecosystem.
    • identify and describe adaptations of organisms.
    • explain the water cycle.                              
    • explain the carbon cycle.                            
    • explain the nitrogen cycle.                               
    • explain the cycles of an ecosystem.
    • describe the four main kinds of tissues.              
    • describe organs and organ systems.
    • describe the functions of the skeletal system and its parts.                
    • describe the parts of the bone.                                        
    • identify the motions and locations of the four kinds of the movable joints.
    • describe how muscles work.                            
    • name three kinds of muscles and identify where they are located in the body.
    • identify the nutrients used by the body.                *
    • ist five ways the body uses proteins.            
    • explain why vitamins  and minerals are important.                  
    • describe the food pyramid to plan a balanced diet.
    • identify the organs in the digestive system.  
    • understand mechanical and chemical digestion.     
    • describe the function of the stomach.        
    • describe the function of the small intestines. 
    • explain how organisms turn food into energy.
    • describe the cirulatory system and its functions.                         
    • describe the heart and explain how blood moves through the heart.                              
    • describe the three types of blood vessels.   
    • describe the different parts of blood.   
    • describe what happens to blood when it circulates.              
    • identify types of heart diseases and their causes.
    • describe the parts of the respiratory system.             
    • compare breathing and respiration.                        
    • explain the process of breathing.                        
    • explain how air is cleaned, warmed, and moistened as it moves through the respiratory system.                      
    • explain gas exchange in the lungs.                            
    • explain the effects of tobacco on the body.
    • explain how waste products are formed and removed by the body.                           
    • describe how the kidneys act as a filtering system for the blood.  
    • identify the layers and structures of the skin.
    • identify the ways your body fights disease.   
    • explain the difference between natural immunity and acquired immunity.              
    • describe the causes of different types of disease.
    • identify the function of the nervous system.      
    • name the parts of the nervous system.         
    • identify and describe the functions of the three parts of the brain. *define reflex.         
    • name the five sense organs and their jobs.  
    • name and describe the functions of th parts of the eye.                     
    • describe the jobs of the main parts of the ear.
    • describe the function of the endrocrine system.                     
    • define hormones.
    • describe the effects of some drugs on the body.                                
    • describe the effects of alcohol on the body.
    • describe the female reproductive system.        
    • describe the male reproductive system.
    • describe the process by which the embryo develops into a fetus. 
    • identify the stages of the human life cycle.



    • formative assessments   
    • journals and/or science notebooks 
    • lab reports  
    • research reports
    • oral report   
    • teacher observation
    • performance assessments
    • summative assessments 

    Elements of Instruction:
    Next Generation Science Standards - High School Life Science - Science and Engineering Practices
    Developing and Using Models-Modeling in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s). 
    • Develop and  use a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
    • Use a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
    Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions-  Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9-12 and builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.
    • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
    •  Design, evaluate and refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade-off considerations.
    Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information- Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.
    •  Communicate scientific information in multiple formats.
    Planning and Carrying Out Investigations- Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.
    • Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: deside on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data and refine the design accordingly.
    Asking Questions and Defining Problems - Asking questions and defining problems in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.
    • Ask questions that arise from examining models or a theory to clarify relationships.  
    Analyzing and Interpreting Data- Analyzing data in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency and the use of models to generate and analyze data.
    • Apply concepts of statistics and probability to scientific and engineering questions and problems, using digital tools when feasible.
    Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking - Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logorithems, and computational tools for statistical analysis to alayyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.
    • Use mathematical and/or computational representations of phenomena or design solutions to support and revise explanations.
    • Use mathematical representations of phenomena or design solutions to support claims.
    • Create or revise a simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system.

    Engaging in Argument from Evidence - Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and design world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

    • Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments. 
    • Make and defend a claim based on evidence about the natural world that reflects scientific knowledge, and student-generated evidence.

    Each lesson has differentiation options for each portion of the lesson. Additional differentiation options are listed with directions and student masters in the Teacher’s Guide.
    Remediation could include: using word walls, using flip charts or foldables, structured notebooks, peer teaching, teaming with the math department for graphing.
    Extensions could include: independent research, inquiry based experiments, exploration of topics online.

     Interdisciplinary Connections:
    Writing in the Sciences is connected to Literacy Common Core Shifts.  Students could use notebooking or journaling, reading informational text and answering text-dependent questions, writing laboratory experiment plans and lab reports, academic and content specific vocabulary.  Problem Solving in the Sciences is connected with Mathematics Common Core Shifts.  Measurement, graphing data, and calculations.

    Additional Resources / Games:
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