• Physical Science Grade 11

    Subject: Science
    Grade: 11 
    Timeline: year long
    Unit Title: Physical Science 

    Unit Overview: 
    Instruction for students in Physical Science focuses on these seven areas: Introduction to Matter; Types of Matter; The Behavior of Matter; Exploring the Periodic Table; Force, Motion and Energy; Waves, Sound and Light; and Electricity and Magnetism.  Sub-ideas include: density, elements and atoms, compounds, mixtures, solutions and suspensions, chemical formulas and reactions, acids and bases, metals, nonmetals, metalloids, and radioactive elements, force, motion, energy, work and machines, heat, waves, sound and light and electricity and magnetism.
    Unit Objectives:
    The objectives of this unit are to apply the Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) Crosscutting Concepts that bridge disciplinary boundaries, uniting core ideas throughout the fields of science and engineering.
    Systems and System Models
    When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models.
    Models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but these predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in models.
    Models can be used to simulate systems and interactions within and between systems at different scales.
    Systems can be designed for greater or lesser stability.
    Energy and Matter.
    Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system.
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed -  it only moves from one place to another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems.
    In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved.
    Structure and Function  
    Investigating or designing new systems or structures requires a detailed examination of the properties of different materials, the structures of different components, and connections of components to reveal its function and/or to solve a problem.
    Stability and Change  
    Systems can be designed for greater or lesser stability.
    Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.
    Cause and Effect
    Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
    Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect.
    Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for complex natural and human designed systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.

    Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at whcih a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
    Focus Standards 
    Keystone Eligible Content
    NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas for HS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
    PS2.A: Forces and Motion- Newton's second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic objects (HS-PS2-1).  Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the velocity of the object.  In any system, total momentum is always conserved (HS-PS2-2).  If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system HS-PS2-2), (HS-PS2-3).
    PS2.B: Types of Interactions- Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law provide the mathematical models to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and electrostatic forces between distant objects (HS-PS2-4).  Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and magnetic) permeating space taht can transfer energy through space.  Magnets or electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic fields cause electric fields (HS-PS2-4), (HS-PS2-5). Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects (HS-PS2-6).
    PS3.A: Definitions of Energy-...and "electircal energy" may mean energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by electrical currents.
    ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems- Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them
    ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution- Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed.
    NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas for HS-PS3 Energy
    PS3.A: Definitions of Energy - Energy is a quantitative propertiy of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system.  That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system's total energy is conserved, even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms (HS-PS3-1), (HS-PS3-20).  At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as motion, sound, light, and thermal energy (HS-PS3-2), (HS-PS3-3). These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields (which mediate interactions between particles).  This last concept includes radiation a phenomenon in which energy stored in fields moves across space (HS-PS3-2). 
    PS3.B:Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer- Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system (HS-PS3-1).  Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to another and transferred between systems (HS-PS3-1) (HS-PS3-4).
    Mathematical expressions, which quantify the stored energy in a system depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles, compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed, allows to conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe system behavior (HS-PS3-1).  The availability of energy limits what can occur in any sytem HS-PS3-1). Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states that is, toward more uniform energy distribution (e.g. water environment cool down) (HS-PS3-4).
     PS3.C: Rleationship Between Energy and Forces- When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy stored in the field is changes (HS-PS3-5).
    PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes- Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms for example to thermal energy in the surrounding environment (HS-PS3-3), (HS-PS3-4).
    ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems- Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements.
    NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas for HS-PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
    PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes- Solar cells are human-made devices that likewise capture the sun's energy and produce electrical energy (HS-PS4-5).
    PS4.A: Wave Properties - The wavelength and frequency of a wave are related to one another by the speed of travel of the wave, which depends on the type of wave and the medium through which it is passing (HS-PS4-1).  Information can be digitized (e.g., a picture stored as the values of an array of pixels); in this form, it can be stored reliably in computer memory and sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses (HS-PS4-2), (HS-PS4-5).  Waves can add or cancel one another as they cross, depending on their relative phase (i.e., relative position of peaks and troughs of the waves), but they emerge unaffected by each other (HS-PS4-3).
    PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation - Electromagnetic radiation (e.g., radio, microwaves, light) can be modeled as a wave of changing electric and magnetic fields or as particles called photons.  The wave model is useful for explaining many features of electromagnetic radiation, and the particle model explains other features (HS-PS4-3).
    When light or longer waveleght electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in matter, it is generally converted into thermal energy (heat).  Shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) can ionize atoms and cause damage to living cells (HS-PS4-4).  Photovoltaic materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency (HS-PS4-5).
    PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation- Multiple technologies based on the understanding of waves and their interactions with matter are part of everyday experiences in the modern world (e.g., medical imaging, communications, scanners) and in scientific research.  They are essential tools for producing, transmitting, and capturing signals and for storing and interpreting the information contained in them (HS-PS4-5).

    Concepts - Students will know:
    • the properties of matter.
    • the states of matter.
    • how matter changes states.
    • physical and chemical changes.
    • what density is and how it is measured.
    • about gravity and displacement.
    • what buoyancy is.
    • elements and atoms.
    • the parts of the atom.
    • atomic numbers and atomic masses.
    • how electrons are arranged in an atom.
    • the periodic table.
    • metals and nonmetals.
    • halogens, noble gases and isotopes.
    • compounds and mixtures.
    • the three types of matter.
    • ionic and covalent bonds.
    • organic compounds and which are needed by living things.
    • water is a universal solvent.
    • about solutions and their parts.
    • four ways to speed up the rate of dissolving.
    • how to differentiate between saturated and unsaturated solutions.
    • how solutes affect freezing and boiling points.
    • how a solution can be separated.
    • about crystals.
    • about suspensions.
    • ways to separate a suspension.
    • emulsions and colloids.
    • what air and water pollution are.
    • about chemical formulas.
    • about oxidation numbers.
    • about chemical compounds.
    • the chemical formula for a polyatomic ion.
    • the steps needed to calculate formula mass.
    • chemical reactions.
    • how to write and balance chemical equations.
    • about oxidation and reduction reactions.
    • how to classify chemical reactions.
    • about acids and bases.
    • about indicators.
    • the pH scale.
    • about neutralization.
    • what an electrolyte is.
    • common ores and the metals they contain.
    • about alloys.
    • alkali metals.
    • corrosion and plating metals.
    • the properties of nonmetals and metalloids.
    • radioactive elements.
    • nuclear reactions.
    • forces such as gravity and friction.
    • use of spring scales.
    • about air resistance, air and water pressure.
    • motion and speed.
    • velocity and acceleration.
    • how to calculate momentum.
    • Newton's Laws of Motion.
    • the two basic kinds of energy.
    • how energy changes form.
    • how to calculate work and power.
    • simple machines.
    • how to determine a machines efficiency.
    • the structure of levers, pulleys, and inclined planes.
    • that a compound machine is made up of simple machines.
    • about heat and temperature.
    • the freezing, melting and boiling points of a substance.
    • conduction, convection and radiation.
    • the specific heat of a substance.
    • about thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases.
    • how waves travel.
    • reflection and refraction.
    • what is sound.
    • how sound waves travel through a medium.
    • frequency and pitch.
    • the Doppler effect.
    • how we hear.
    • electromagnetic spectrum.
    • about light.
    • the process of photosynthesis.
    • how lenses refract light.
    • how the eye senses light and forms images.
    • how mirrors reflect light.
    • about color and modern uses of light.
    • about electric charges and static electricity.
    • about batteries.
    • insulators and conductors.
    • two kinds of electric currents.
    • series and parallel circuits.
    • how electricity is measured.
    • Ohm's law.
    • about safety and electricity
    • about magnets.
    • how transformers, electric motors and generators work.
    Competencies -Students will be able to:
    • Identify the two basic properties of matter. 
    • Identify and describe the four states of matter.
    • Distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter.
    • Define density.                          
    • Calculate the densities of objects from measurements of mass and volume.
    • Explain specific gravity.                
    • Use displacement to measure the volume of irregularly shaped solids.
    • Explain Archimedes' principle in terms of buoyancy and displacement.
    • Compare elements. *Examine models of matter.                                        
    • Trace the history of the development of the different models of atomic structure.
    • Explain the structure of atoms.
    • Explain atomic number and atomic mass.
    • Describe how the electrons in an atom are arranged in energy levels.
    • Trace the development of the Periodic Table of Elements.
    • Identify the properties of metals and nonmetals using the Periodic Table of Elements.
    • Identify halogens and noble gases using the Periodic Table of Elements.                            
    • Explain what an  isotope of an element is.
    • Identify the three types of matter: elements, compounds and mixtures. 
    • Explain the ways in which mixtures and compounds are different
    • Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonds.                                                    
    • Identify that organic compounds contain carbon.
    • Describe the organic compounds that sustain living organisms. 
    • Identify the properties of solutions.
    • Explain why water is a good solvent.
    • Explain how to change the rate at which a substance dissolves.
    • The concentration of a solution.
    • Describe how the presence of a solute affects the freezing and boiling points of a solution.
    • Describe two methods for separating the solute from the solvent in a solution.
    • Explain how crystals are formed from solutions.
    • Describe the characteristics of a suspension.
    • Describe some ways to separate a suspension.
    • Describe and give examples of emulsions and colloids.
    • Describe some causes of air and water pollution.
    • Write chemical formulas.
    • Describe how to use oxidation numbers to write the chemical formula of a compound.
    • Explain how chemical compounds are named.
    • Identify the chemical formula for polyatomic ions.
    • Explain how to find formula mass.
    • Describe what happens in a chemical reaction.
    • Explain how a chemical equation describes a chemical reaction.
    • Compare oxidation and reduction reactions.
    • Describe what happens in a synthesis, decomposition, single-replacement and double-replacement reaction.
    • Define and give examples of acids and bases.
    • Describe how indicators are used to identify acids and bases.
    • Describe how the pH scale is used to measure the strength of acids and bases.
    • Identify what happens when an acid reacts with a base.
    • Explain how ions in solution conduct electricity.
    • Name common ores and the metals that are obtained form them.                                   
    • Describe how some metals are removed from their ores.
    • Identify alloys and their uses.
    • List the most active metals from the periodic table.
    • Explain what causes corrosion.                                         
    • Explain how metals are plated.
    • List the families of nonmetals and describe their features.                                    
    • Describe the properties of metalloids.
    • Locate radioactive elements on the periodic table.
    • Explain the processes of nuclear fission and fusion.
    • *Describe force and give some examples of forces in nature.                                           
    • Identify examples of friction.                                             
    • Describe some ways to change friction.
    • Describe how a spring scale is used to measure weight.
    • Explain how air resistance affects moving objects.                                                
    • Identify pressure as a force acting on a unit area.                                                
    • Explain what causes air pressure and how it is measured.                                   
    • Identify water pressure and as the pressure caused by the weight and movement of water molecules.
    • Explain that an object is moving if it changes position relative to some object that is not moving.
    • Differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration.
    • Define and describe how to calculate momentum.
    • Describe Newton's first, second and third laws of motion.
    • Compare potential and kinetic energy.
    • Identify and describe the different forms of energy.
    • Identify examples of energy changing form.                    
    • Relate work, force and distance.                                       
    • Use the proper units to measure and express work.                                               
    • Explain how to measure power.
    • Describe how machines make work easier.
    • Explain how to find the efficiency of a machine.
    • Explain how a lever makes work easier and describe the three classes of levers.                                
    • Explain how pulleys make work easier and compare fixed and movable pulleys.                          
    • Describe how an inclined plane make work easier.
    • Name some compound machines.
    • Explain that heat is a form of energy.                             
    • Differentiate between heat and temperature.
    • Identify the freezing, melting and boiling points of a substance.                      
    • Differentiate between boiling and evaporation.
    • Describe how heat is transferred through solids.                                                
    • Describe how heat travels through gases and liquids.                                     
    • Describe how heat travels through empty space.
    • Describe the physical property of specific heat.
    • Describe what happens to solids, liquids and gases when they are heated.
    • Identify a wave as energy traveling through a medium.                                       
    • Classify waves as transverse or longitudinal.                                   
    • Relate wave speed, frequency, and wavelength.
    • Describe what happens when a wave strikes a barrier.                                                 
    • Describe what happens to a wave when it moves from one medium to another.
    • Identify sound as a form of energy caused by vibrations.
    • Describe how sound waves travel.
    • Explain how frequency and pitch are related.
    • Explain what is meant by the Doppler effect.
    • Identify the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
    • Describe light as a form of electromagnetic energy.                                              
    • Describe how light travels as transverse waves.
    • Explain how plants use the energy of the Sun to make food.
    • Compare and contrast how light rays are bent by concave and convex lenses.
    • Identify the parts of the eye and describe how the eye senses light.
    • Describe how mirrors form clear images.
    • Describe how a prism forms a visible spectrum and explain why different objects have different colors.                  
    • Identify uses of light in different areas of life.
    • Explain how objects become electrically charged.
    • Compare a wet cell and a dry cell.
    • List examples of conductors and insulators.
    • Differentiate between direct and alternating currents.
    • Describe and compare  series and parallel circuits.                                             
    • Explain how electricity flows through a closed circuit.
    • Use the correct units to measure voltage, current and resistance.
    • Describe ways to use electricity safely.
    • Describe the properties of a magnet.                               
    • Demonstrate the shape of a magnetic field.                           
    • Compare permanent magnets and temporary magnets.                                       
    • Explain how Earth acts like a magnet.                                
    • Explain the  relationship between electricity and magnetism.                              
    • Describe how to make an electromagnet.
    • Compare a step-up and a step-down transformer.                                        
    • Explain how an electric motor and an electric generator works.

    • formative assessments   
    • journals and/or science notebooks 
    • lab reports  
    • research reports
    • oral report   
    • teacher observation
    • performance assessments
    • summative assessments 

    Elements of Instruction:
    Developing and Using Models-Modeling in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).
    • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system
    • Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system. 
    Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking-Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.
    • Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe and/or support claims and/or explanations.
    • Create a computational model or simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process or system.
    Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions- Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9-12 and builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.
    • Apply scientific ideas to solve a design problem taking into account possible unanticipated effects. 
    • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to d so in the future.
    • Refine a solution to a complex real-world problem based on scientific knowledge, student generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade-off considerations.
    • Design, evaluate and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade-off consideration.
    Engaging in Argument from Evidence- Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific and historical episodes in science.
    • Evaluate the claims, evidence and reasoning behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments.
    Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information- Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.
    • Communicate scientific and technical information or ideas in multiple formats.
    Planning and Carrying Out Investigations- Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.
    • Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data and refine the design accordingly.
    Asking Questions and Defining Problems - Asking questions and defining problems in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses into formulating, refining and evaluating empirically tested questions and design problems using models and simulations. 
    • Evaluate questions that challenge the premise(s) of an argument, the interpretation of a data set, or the suitability of a design. 
    Analyzing and Interpreting Data- Analyzing data in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency and the use of models to generate and analyze data.
    • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution. 

    Each lesson has differentiation options for each portion of the lesson. Additional differentiation options are listed with directions and student masters in the Teacher’s Guide.
    Remediation could include: using word walls, using flip charts or foldables, structured notebooks, peer teaching, teaming with the math department for graphing.
    Extensions could include: independent research, inquiry based experiments, exploration of topics online.

    Interdisciplinary Connections:
    Writing in the Sciences is connected to Literacy Common Core Shifts.  Students could use notebooking or journaling, reading informational text and answering text-dependent questions, writing laboratory experiment plans and lab reports, academic and content specific vocabulary.  Problem Solving in the Sciences is connected with Mathematics Common Core Shifts.  Measurement, graphing data, and calculations.